|mar de Barents|
|Entradas primarias||Mar de Noruega , Océano Ártico|
|Países de la cuenca||Noruega y Rusia|
|Área de superficie||1,400,000 km 2 (540,000 millas cuadradas)|
|Profundidad promedio||230 m (750 pies)|
|Referencias||Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Noruega|
El mar de Barents ( / / BARR -ənts , también de Estados Unidos : / / BAR -ənts ;  noruego : Barentshavet , Urban Este noruego: [bɑːrəntsˌhɑːvə] ; [2 ] Rusia : Баренцево море , romanized : Barentsevo Más ) es un mar marginal delOcéano Ártico ,  ubicado frente a las costas del norte de Noruega y Rusia y dividido entre aguas territoriales noruegas y rusas .  Conocido entre los rusos en la Edad Media como el Mar de Murman ("Mar de Noruega"), el nombre actual del mar proviene del histórico navegante holandés Willem Barentsz .
Este es un mar de plataforma bastante poco profundo , con una profundidad promedio de 230 metros (750 pies), y es un sitio importante tanto para la pesca como para la exploración de hidrocarburos .  El mar de Barents limita con la península de Kola al sur, el borde de la plataforma hacia el mar de Noruega al oeste y los archipiélagos de Svalbard al noroeste, Franz Josef Land al noreste y Novaya Zemlya al este. Las islas de Novaya Zemlya, una extensión del extremo norte de los Montes Urales , separan el mar de Barents del mar de Kara .
Aunque es parte del Océano Ártico, el Mar de Barents se ha caracterizado por "convertirse en el Atlántico "  o en proceso de ser "Atlantificado"  debido a su condición de "el punto caliente del calentamiento del Ártico". Los cambios hidrológicos debidos al calentamiento global han provocado una reducción del hielo marino y la estratificación de la columna de agua, lo que podría producir cambios importantes en el clima en Eurasia .  Una predicción es que a medida que el área libre de hielo permanente del mar de Barents crece, la evaporación adicional aumentará las futuras nevadas invernales en gran parte de Europa continental. 
Geografía [ editar ]
La mitad sur del mar de Barents, incluidos los puertos de Murmansk (Rusia) y Vardø (Noruega), permanecen sin hielo durante todo el año debido a la cálida deriva del Atlántico norte . En septiembre, todo el mar de Barents está más o menos completamente libre de hielo. Hasta la Guerra de Invierno (1939-1940), el territorio de Finlandia también llegó hasta el mar de Barents. Su puerto en Petsamo era el único puerto de invierno sin hielo de Finlandia.
Hay tres tipos principales de masas de agua en el mar de Barents: agua cálida y salada del Atlántico (temperatura> 3 ° C, salinidad > 35) de la deriva del Atlántico norte ; agua fría del Ártico (temperatura <0 ° C, salinidad <35) del norte; y aguas costeras cálidas, pero no muy saladas (temperatura> 3 ° C, salinidad <34,7). Entre las aguas atlánticas y polares se forma un frente denominado Frente Polar. En las partes occidentales del mar (cerca de Bear Island ), este frente está determinado por la topografía del fondo y, por lo tanto, es relativamente abrupto y estable de año en año, mientras que en el este (hacia Novaya Zemlya ), puede ser bastante difuso y estable. su posición puede variar notablemente de un año a otro.
Las tierras de Novaya Zemlya alcanzaron la mayor parte de su desglaciación costera del Holoceno temprano aproximadamente 10,000 años antes del presente. 
Extensión [ editar ]
La Organización Hidrográfica Internacional define los límites del "Mar de Barentsz" [ sic ] de la siguiente manera: 
- Al oeste : El límite noreste del Mar de Noruega [Una línea que une el punto más al sur de West Spitzbergen [ sic ] con el Cabo Norte de la Isla del Oso , a través de esta isla hasta el Cabo Bull y de allí al Cabo Norte en Noruega (25 ° 45 ' MI)].
- En el noroeste : la costa oriental de West Spitzbergen [ sic ], el estrecho de Hinlopen hasta 80 ° de latitud norte ; costas sur y este de la tierra nororiental [isla de Nordaustlandet ] hasta el cabo Leigh Smith ( ).
- Al norte : Cabo Leigh Smith a través de las islas Bolshoy Ostrov (Isla Grande) [ Storøya ], Gilles [ Kvitøya ] y Victoria ; Cabo Mary Harmsworth (extremo suroeste de Alexandra Land ) a lo largo de las costas septentrionales de Franz-Josef Land hasta el cabo Kohlsaat ( ).
- Al este : Cabo Kohlsaat hasta Cabo Zhelaniya (Deseo); costa oeste y suroeste de Novaya Zemlya hasta el cabo Kussov Noss y desde allí hasta la entrada occidental del cabo, bahía Dolgaya ( ) en la isla de Vaigach . A través de la isla de Vaigach hasta el cabo Greben; de allí al cabo Belyi Noss en el continente.
- En el sur : El límite norte del Mar Blanco [Una línea que une Svyatoi Nos ( Costa de Murmansk , 39 ° 47'E) y Cabo Kanin].
Otras islas en el mar de Barents incluyen Chaichy y Timanets.
Geología [ editar ]
The Barents Sea was originally formed from two major continental collisions: the Caledonian orogeny, in which the Baltica and Laurentia collided to form Laurasia, and a subsequent collision between Laurasia and Western Siberia. Most of its geological history is dominated by extensional tectonics, caused by the collapse of the Caledonian and Uralian orogenic belts and the break-up of Pangaea. These events created the major rift basins that dominate the Barents Shelf, along with various platforms and structural highs. The later geological history of the Barents Sea is dominated by Late Cenozoic uplift, particularly that caused by Quaternary glaciation, which has resulted in erosion and deposition of significant sediment.
Due to the North Atlantic drift, the Barents Sea has a high biological production compared to other oceans of similar latitude. The spring bloom of phytoplankton can start quite early near the ice edge, because the fresh water from the melting ice makes up a stable water layer on top of the sea water. The phytoplankton bloom feeds zooplankton such as Calanus finmarchicus, Calanus glacialis, Calanus hyperboreus, Oithona spp., and krill. The zooplankton feeders include young cod, capelin, polar cod, whales, and little auk. The capelin is a key food for top predators such as the north-east Arctic cod, harp seals, and seabirds such as common guillemot and Brunnich's guillemot. The fisheries of the Barents Sea, in particular the cod fisheries, are of great importance for both Norway and Russia.
SIZEX-89 was an international winter experiment in 1989 for which the main objectives were to perform sensor signature studies of different ice types in order to develop SAR algorithms for ice variables, such as ice types, ice concentrations and ice kinematics.Although previous research suggested that predation by whales may be the cause of depleting fish stocks, more recent research suggests that marine mammal consumption has only a trivial influence on fisheries. A model assessing the effects of fisheries and climate was far more accurate at describing trends in fish abundance. There is a genetically distinct polar bear population associated with the Barents Sea.
The Barents Sea was formerly known to Russians as Murmanskoye More, or the "Sea of Murmans" (i.e., their term for Norwegians). It appears with this name in sixteenth-century maps, including Gerard Mercator's Map of the Arctic published in his 1595 atlas. Its eastern corner, in the region of the Pechora River's estuary, has been known as Pechorskoye Morye, that is, Pechora Sea.
This sea was given its present name by Europeans in honor of Willem Barentsz, a Dutch navigator and explorer. Barentsz was the leader of early expeditions to the far north, at the end of the sixteenth century.
The Barents Sea has been called by sailors "The Devil's Dance Floor" due to its unpredictability and difficulty level.
Ocean rowers call it "Devil's Jaw". In 2017, after the first recorded complete man-powered crossing of the Barents Sea from Tromsø to Longyearbyen in a row boat by Polar Row expedition, captain Fiann Paul was asked by Norwegian TV2 how a rower would name the Barents Sea. Fiann responded that he would name it "Devil's Jaw", adding that the winds you constantly battle are like breath from the devil's nostrils while he holds you in his jaws.
Seabed mapping was completed in 1933; the first full map was produced by Russian marine geologist Maria Klenova.
The Barents Sea was the site of a notable World War II engagement, a German surface raiding attack on a British merchant convoy, which later became known as the Battle of the Barents Sea. Under the command of Oskar Kummetz, the German warships sank minelayer HMS Bramble and destroyer HMS Achates, but lost destroyer Z16 Friedrich Eckoldt, and Admiral Hipper was severely damaged by British gunfire. The Germans later retreated and the British convoy arrived safely at Murmansk shortly afterwards.
During the Cold War, the Soviet Red Banner Northern Fleet used the southern reaches of the sea as a ballistic missile submarine bastion, a strategy that Russia continues. Nuclear contamination from dumped Russian naval reactors is an environmental concern in the Barents Sea.
For decades there was a boundary dispute between Norway and Russia regarding the position of the boundary between their respective claims to the Barents Sea. The Norwegians favoured a median line, based on the Geneva Convention of 1958, whereas the Russians favoured a meridian- based sector line, based on a Soviet decision of 1926. A neutral "grey" zone between the competing claims had an area of 175,000 sq.km, which is approximately 12% of the total area of the Barents Sea. The two countries started negotiations on the location of the boundary in 1974, and agreed to a moratorium on hydrocarbon exploration in 1976.
Twenty years after the fall of the Soviet Union, in 2010 Norway and Russia signed an agreement that placed the boundary equidistant from their competing claims. This was ratified and went into force on 7 July 2011, opening the grey zone for hydrocarbon exploration.
Oil and gas
Encouraged by the success of oil exploration and production in the North Sea in the 1960s, Norway began hydrocarbon exploration in the Barents Sea in 1969. They acquired seismic reflection surveys through the following years, which were analysed to understand the location of the main sedimentary basins. NorskHydro drilled the first well in 1980, which was a dry hole, and the first discoveries were made the following year: the Alke and Askeladden gas fields. Several more discoveries were made on the Norwegian side of the Barents Sea throughout the 1980s, including the important Snøhvit field.
But, interest in the area began to wane due to a succession of dry holes, wells containing only gas (which was cheap at the time), and the prohibitive costs of developing wells in such a remote area. Interest in the area was reignited in the late 2000s, after the Snovhit field was finally brought into production and two new large discoveries were made.
The Russians began exploration in their territory around the same time, encouraged by their success in the Timan-Pechora Basin. They drilled their first wells in the early 1980s, and some very large gas fields were discovered throughout this decade. The Shtokman field was discovered in 1988 and is classed as a giant gas field: currently the 5th-largest gas field in the world. Similar practical difficulties Barents Sea resulted in a decline in Russian exploration, aggravated by the nation's political instability of the 1990s.
The Barents Sea contains the world's largest remaining cod population, as well as important stocks of haddock and capelin. Fishing is managed jointly by Russia and Norway in the form of the Joint Norwegian–Russian Fisheries Commission, established in 1976, in an attempt to keep track of how many fish are leaving the ecosystem due to fishing. The Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission sets Total Allowable Catches (TACs) for multiple species throughout their migratory tracks. Through the Commission, Norway and Russia also exchange fishing quotas and catch statistics to ensure the TACs are not being violated.
But there are problems with reporting under this system, and researchers believe that they do not have accurate data for the effects of fishing on the Barents Sea ecosystem. Cod is one of the major catches. A large portion of catches are not reported when the fishing boats land, in order to account for profits that are being lost to high taxes and fees. Since many fishermen do not strictly follow the TACs and rules set forth by the Commission, the amount of fish being extracted annually from the Barents Sea is underestimated.
Barents Sea biodiversity and marine bioprospecting
The Barents Sea, where temperate waters from the Gulf Stream and cold waters from the Arctic meet, is home to an enormous diversity of organisms, which are well adapted to the extreme conditions of their marine habitats. This makes these arctic species very attractive for marine bioprospecting. Marine bioprospecting may be defined as the search for bioactive molecules and compounds from marine sources having new, unique properties and the potential for commercial applications. Amongst others, applications include medicines, food and feed, textiles, cosmetics and the process industry.
The Norwegian government strategically supports the development of marine bioprospecting as it has the potential to contribute to new and sustainable wealth creation. Tromsø and the northern areas of Norway play a central role in this strategy. They have excellent access to unique Arctic marine organisms, existing marine industries, and R&D competence and infrastructure in this region. Since 2007, science and industry have cooperated closely on bioprospecting, and the development and commercialization of new products.
Institutions and industry supporting marine bioprospecting in Barents Sea
MabCent-SFI is one of fourteen Research-Based Innovation Centers initiated by the Research Council of Norway. It is the only one within the field of “bioactive compounds and drug discovery” that is based on bioactives from marine organisms. MabCent-SFI maintains a focus on bioactives from Arctic and sub-Arctic organisms. By the end of 2011, MabCent had tested about 200,000 extracts, finding several hundred "hits". Through further research and development, some of these hits will become valuable "leads", i.e. characterized compounds known to possess biological effects of interest.
The commercial partners in MabCent-SFI are Biotec Pharmacon ASA and its subsidiary ArcticZymes AS, ABC BioScience AS, Lytix Biopharma AS and Pronova BioPharma ASA. ArcticZymes is also a partner in MARZymes, a project financed by the Research Council of Norway to find marine enzymes which are adapted to the extreme conditions in the Arctic. The science partners in MabCent-SFI are Marbank, a national marine biobank located in Tromsø; Marbio, a medium/high-throughput platform for screening and identification of bioactive compounds; and Norstruct, a protein structure determination platform. Mabcent-SFI is hosted by the University of Tromsø.
BioTech North is an emerging biotechnology cluster of enterprises and R&D organizations, which cooperate closely with regional funding and development actors (triple helix). As bioactive molecules and compounds from Arctic marine resources form the basis of activities for the majority of the cluster members, BioTech North serves as a marine biotech cluster. The majority of BioTech North’s enterprises are active within life science applications and markets. To date the cluster contains around thirty organizations from both the private and public sector. It has received Arena status and is funded through the [ Arena] programme financed by Innovation Norway, SIVA and The Research Council of Norway. Stakeholders of BioTech North include Barents BioCentre Lab, BioStruct, Marbank, Norut, Nofima, Mabcent-SFI, University of Tromsø, Unilab, Barentzymes AS, Trofi, Scandiderma AS, Prophylix Pharma AS, Olivita, Marealis, ProCelo, Probio, Lytix Biopharma, Integorgen, d'Liver, Genøk, Cognis, Clare AS, Chitinor, Calanus AS, Biotec Betaglucans, Ayanda, ArcticZymes AS, ABC Bioscience, Akvaplanniva.
- Barents Basin
- Continental shelf of Russia
- Energy in Norway
- List of largest biotechnology & pharmaceutical companies
- List of oil and gas fields of the Barents Sea
- List of seas
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barents Sea.|
- . Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). 1911.
- Barents.com—Developing the Barents Region
- Foraminifera of the Barents Sea—illustrated catalog