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Brighton ( / b r t ən / ) es un balneario y una de las dos áreas principales de la ciudad de Brighton y Hove . Ubicado en la costa sur de Inglaterra , en el condado de East Sussex , está a 47 millas (76 km) al sur de Londres . [2]

La evidencia arqueológica de asentamiento en el área se remonta a la Edad del Bronce , los períodos romano y anglosajón . El antiguo asentamiento de "Brighthelmstone" fue documentado en el Domesday Book (1086). Aproximadamente desde 1730 se desarrolló como balneario.

El rey Jorge IV pasó mucho tiempo en la ciudad y allí construyó el Pabellón Real . La llegada de los ferrocarriles en 1841 lo ayudó a convertirse en un destino popular para los excursionistas de Londres. Brighton se unió a Hove para formar la autoridad unitaria de Brighton y Hove en 1997, a la que se le otorgó el estatus de ciudad en 2000. [3] En 2017, Brighton y Hove tenían una población residente de aproximadamente 290.885. Brighton ha sido descrita como la " ciudad más de moda " del Reino Unido , [4] "el lugar más feliz para vivir en el Reino Unido", [5] y la "capital gay no oficial del Reino Unido". [6]

Etimología [ editar ]

La atestación más antigua del nombre de Brighton es Bristelmestune , registrada en el Domesday Book . Aunque se han documentado más de 40 variaciones, Brighthelmstone (o Brighthelmston ) fue la representación estándar entre los siglos XIV y XVIII. [7] [8]

"Brighton" fue originalmente una forma abreviada informal, vista por primera vez en 1660; gradualmente suplantó el nombre más largo y fue de uso general desde finales del siglo XVIII, aunque Brighthelmstone siguió siendo el nombre oficial de la ciudad hasta 1810. [8] El nombre es de origen anglosajón . La mayoría de los estudiosos creen que se deriva de Beorthelm + tūn , la granja de Beorthelm , un nombre común en inglés antiguo asociado con pueblos de otras partes de Inglaterra. [8] El elemento tūn es común en Sussex, especialmente en la costa, aunque ocurre con poca frecuencia en combinación con un nombre personal. [9]A veces se da una etimología alternativa tomada de las palabras del inglés antiguo para "stony valley", pero tiene menos aceptación. [8] Brighthelm da su nombre, entre otras cosas, a una iglesia, [10] un pub en Brighton, [11] algunas residencias en la Universidad de Sussex . [12] Escribiendo en 1950, el historiador Antony Dale señaló que los anticuarios anónimos habían sugerido que una palabra en inglés antiguo "brist" o "briz", que significa "dividido", podría haber contribuido a la primera parte del nombre histórico Brighthelmstone. La ciudad se dividió originalmente en un medio por el Wellesbourne, un Winterbourne que fue entubado y enterrado en el siglo 18. [13]

Brighton tiene varios apodos. El poeta Horace Smith lo llamó "La reina de los abrevaderos", que todavía se usa ampliamente, [14] y "La chuchería del viejo océano". [15] El novelista William Makepeace Thackeray se refirió al "Doctor Brighton", llamando a la ciudad "uno de los mejores médicos". "London-by-the-Sea" es bien conocido, lo que refleja la popularidad de Brighton entre los londinenses como un centro turístico de un día, un dormitorio para viajeros y un destino deseable para aquellos que desean mudarse fuera de la metrópoli. "La reina de los lugares de matanza", un juego de palabras con la descripción de Smith, se hizo popular cuando los asesinatos del baúl de Brighton llamaron la atención del público en la década de 1930. [15]El sobrenombre de "Ciudad Escolar" de mediados del siglo XIX se refería al notable número de escuelas de internado, caridad e iglesias que había en la ciudad en ese momento. [dieciséis]

Historia [ editar ]

Queens Road , una de las calles más antiguas de Brighton

El primer asentamiento en el área de Brighton fue Whitehawk Camp , un campamento neolítico en Whitehawk Hill que data de entre el 3500 a. C. y el 2700 a. C. [17] Es uno de los seis recintos de Sussex. Los arqueólogos lo han explorado solo parcialmente, pero han encontrado numerosos túmulos , herramientas y huesos, lo que sugiere que era un lugar de cierta importancia. [18] También hubo un asentamiento de la Edad de Bronce en Coldean . Los celtas Brythonic llegaron a Gran Bretaña en el siglo VII a. C., [17] y existió un importante asentamiento Brythonic enCastillo de Hollingbury en Hollingbury Hill. Este campamento celta de la Edad del Hierro data del siglo III o II a. C. y está circunscrito por importantes muros exteriores de terraplenes con un diámetro de c. 1000 pies (300 m). Se sugiere que Cissbury Ring , aproximadamente a 10 millas (16 km) de Hollingbury, fue la "capital" tribal. [19]

Más tarde, hubo una villa romana en Preston Village , una calzada romana desde Londres corría cerca, y muchas pruebas físicas de la ocupación romana se han descubierto localmente. [17] Desde el siglo I d. C., los romanos construyeron varias villas en Brighton y los celtas británicos romanos formaron asentamientos agrícolas en la zona. [20] Después de que los romanos se fueran a principios del siglo IV d. C., el área de Brighton volvió al control de los celtas nativos. Los anglosajones invadieron a finales del siglo V d. C. y la región pasó a formar parte del Reino de Sussex , fundado en el 477 d . C. por el rey Ælle .[21]

Anthony Seldon identificó cinco fases de desarrollo en el Brighton anterior al siglo XX. [22] El pueblo de Bristelmestune fue fundado por estos invasores anglosajones, probablemente a principios del período sajón. Se sintieron atraídos por el fácil acceso para los barcos, las áreas protegidas de terreno elevado para la construcción y las mejores condiciones en comparación con el húmedo, frío y brumoso Weald del norte. [23] En el momento de la prospección de Domesday en 1086, era un asentamiento pesquero y agrícola, se estableció una renta de 4.000 arenques y su población era de aproximadamente 400. [7] [17] En el siglo XIV había una iglesia parroquial, un mercado y aplicación de la ley rudimentaria (el primer alguacil de la ciudad fue elegido en 1285). [24] Saqueado y quemado por invasores franceses a principios del siglo XVI; la primera representación de Brighton, una pintura de c. 1520, muestra el ataque del almirante Pregent de Bidoux de junio de 1514: la ciudad se recuperó con fuerza gracias a una próspera industria de la pesca de la caballa . [25] La cuadrícula de calles en la Ciudad Vieja (el área actual de Lanes ) estaba bien desarrollada y la ciudad creció rápidamente: la población aumentó de c. 1,500 en 1600 a c. 4000 en la década de 1640. [17] En ese momento, Brighton era la ciudad más poblada e importante de Sussex.[25] Habiendo perdido la batalla de Worcester , el rey Carlos II, después de esconderse durante 42 días en varios lugares, huyó la noche del 15 de octubre de 1651 en el "Surprise" de Brighthelmstone a su exilio en Fécamp, Francia.

Sin embargo, durante las siguientes décadas, los acontecimientos afectaron gravemente a su posición local y nacional, de modo que en 1730 "era una ciudad abandonada decididamente en desgracia". Más ataques extranjeros, tormentas (especialmente la devastadora Gran Tormenta de 1703 ), una industria pesquera en declive y el surgimiento de la cercana Shoreham como un puerto importante hicieron que su economía sufriera. [25] En 1708, a otras parroquias en Sussex se les cobraron tarifas para aliviar la pobreza en Brighton, y Daniel Defoe escribió que el costo esperado de £ 8,000 para proporcionar defensas contra el mar era "más de lo que valía toda la ciudad". La población se redujo a 2.000 a principios del siglo XVIII. [17]

A partir de la década de 1730, Brighton entró en su segunda fase de desarrollo, una que trajo una rápida mejora en su suerte. El Dr. Richard Russell, de la cercana Lewes, alentó con entusiasmo la moda contemporánea de beber y bañarse en agua de mar como una supuesta cura para las enfermedades . Envió a muchos pacientes a "tomar la cura" en el mar de Brighton, publicó un tratado popular [nota 1] sobre el tema y se mudó a la ciudad poco después (el Royal Albion , uno de los primeros hoteles de Brighton, ocupa el sitio de su casa). [27]Otros ya estaban visitando la ciudad con fines recreativos antes de que Russell se hiciera famoso, y sus acciones coincidieron con otros desarrollos que hicieron que Brighton fuera más atractivo para los visitantes. Desde la década de 1760 fue un punto de embarque para los barcos que viajaban a Francia; el transporte por carretera a Londres se mejoró [28] cuando se cambió la carretera principal a través de Crawley en 1770; [29] y otros médicos emprendedores como Sake Dean Mahomed y Anthony Relhan (que también escribieron la primera guía de la ciudad) abrieron spas y baños interiores . [28]

Brighton, el frente y el muelle de las cadenas vistos en la distancia , Frederick William Woledge, 1840

A partir de 1780, comenzó el desarrollo de las terrazas georgianas y el pueblo de pescadores se convirtió en el centro turístico de moda de Brighton. El crecimiento de la ciudad fue alentado aún más por el patrocinio del Príncipe Regente (más tarde el Rey Jorge IV ) después de su primera visita en 1783. [30] Pasó gran parte de su tiempo libre en la ciudad y construyó el Pabellón Real durante la primera parte de su Regencia . En este período, la forma moderna del nombre Brighton entró en uso común. [31]

Se estableció una presencia militar permanente en la ciudad con la finalización de Preston Barracks en 1793. [32] Fue reconstruida en 1830.

La población aumentó rápidamente en el siglo XIX. En 1801 era 7.339 y en 1811 había llegado a 12.012. Era 24.429 en 1821 y en 1831 había llegado a 40.634. En 1841 eran 46.661. [33]

Fotocromo del acuario de Brighton, 1890-1900

La llegada del ferrocarril de Londres y Brighton en 1841 puso a Brighton al alcance de los excursionistas de Londres. La población creció de alrededor de 7.000 en 1801 a más de 120.000 en 1901. [34] Muchas de las principales atracciones se construyeron durante la época victoriana , como el Grand Hotel (1864), el West Pier (1866) y el Palace Pier. (1899). Antes de cualquiera de estas estructuras, se construyó el famoso Chain Pier, según los diseños del Capitán Samuel Brown. Duró desde 1823 hasta 1896 y aparece en pinturas de Turner y Constable . [35]

Debido a los cambios en los límites, la superficie terrestre de Brighton se expandió de 1.640 acres (7 km 2 ) en 1854 a 14.347 acres (58 km 2 ) en 1952. [36] Se establecieron nuevas urbanizaciones en las áreas adquiridas, incluida Moulsecoomb , Bevendean , Coldean y Whitehawk . La gran expansión de 1928 también incorporó las aldeas de Patcham , Ovingdean y Rottingdean , y muchas viviendas del consejo se construyeron en partes de Woodingdean.después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En la década de 1970, la ciudad se había ganado la reputación de ser un destino para jubilados, con una población anciana. [37] Sin embargo, esto se revirtió en la década de 1990, cuando la gentrificación hizo que Brighton recuperara el estatus de moda que tenía en los siglos XVIII y XIX, debido en gran parte a una creciente población LGBT .

En 1997, la ciudad de Brighton y su ciudad vecina Hove se unieron para formar la autoridad unitaria de Brighton y Hove , a la que la reina Isabel II le otorgó el estatus de ciudad como parte de las celebraciones del milenio en 2000. [38]

Demografía [ editar ]

A partir de 2017 , el distrito de Brighton and Hove , del cual Brighton es el área más grande, tiene una población residente estimada de 290,885 residentes. [39] Está clasificado como el 45º distrito más poblado de Inglaterra. En comparación con el promedio nacional, Brighton tiene menos niños y residentes mayores, pero una gran proporción de adultos de entre 20 y 44 años. [40]

Brighton tiene una historia amigable con las personas LGBT desde hace mucho tiempo . En una estimación de 2014, se cree que entre el 11% y el 15% de la población de la ciudad de 16 años o más es lesbiana, gay o bisexual. [41] La ciudad también tenía el porcentaje más alto de hogares del mismo sexo en el Reino Unido en 2004 [42] y el mayor número de registros de parejas civiles fuera de Londres en 2013. [43]

Religión [ editar ]

Brighton está identificado como uno de los lugares menos religiosos del Reino Unido, según el análisis del censo de 2011 que reveló que el 42 por ciento de la población no profesa ninguna religión , muy por encima del promedio nacional del 25 por ciento. [44] Brighton ha sido descrita como la ciudad más "sin Dios" del Reino Unido. [45] La religión más importante es el cristianismo , y el 43 por ciento informa una afiliación. La segunda religión más grande es el Islam , con un 2,2%, que es más bajo que el promedio nacional. [44]

Como parte del fenómeno del censo Jedi en 2001, el 2.6 por ciento afirmó que su religión era 'Caballero Jedi', el porcentaje más grande en el país. [46]

Desamparo [ editar ]

En 2016, las cifras del gobierno analizadas por la organización benéfica Shelter revelaron que Brighton y Hove tenían la peor tasa de personas sin hogar fuera de Londres y es peor que algunos distritos de la capital. Según los datos de Libertad de Información, hay 4.095 personas durmiendo a la intemperie o en un alojamiento temporal o de emergencia en la ciudad, lo que sugiere que una de cada 69 personas en Brighton y Hove no tenía hogar. [47] En un informe de caridad publicado en noviembre de 2016, tres áreas en Brighton & Hove, East Brighton, Queen's Park y Moulsecoomb & Bevendean se ubicaron en el diez por ciento más alto a nivel nacional en cuanto a privaciones. [48]

Tiendas de campaña para durmientes en Brighton's Castle Square

Aunque la privación en Brighton se distribuye por toda la ciudad, está más concentrada en algunas áreas. La concentración más alta se encuentra en las áreas de Whitehawk, Moulsecoomb y Hollingbury, pero también se encuentra alrededor de las áreas de St. James's Street y Eastern Road. [49] [50] Una estadística del gobierno de 2015 mostró que el área alrededor de la rotonda del Palace Pier de Brighton y al este hacia St James's Street en Kemptown es el séptimo peor "entorno de vida" en Inglaterra. [51] El 19 de enero de 2017, el ayuntamiento de Brighton anunció que estaban analizando ciertas iniciativas para tratar de aliviar parte del aumento de las personas sin hogar que se observa en las calles de Brighton y que esperaban abrir la primera vivienda temporal interna para personas sin hogar en la ciudad. [52] Las cifras de personas sin hogar publicadas por Crisis en diciembre de 2018 informaron un récord en el Reino Unido, con cifras en Sussex , incluidas Brighton y Hove, informadas como 'altas'. [53] [54] Las propuestas para que Brighton and Hove Council apruebe una declaración de derechos para personas sin hogar se encuentran actualmente en discusión, después de que los concejales de la ciudad dieron su respaldo unánime. Si el proyecto de ley avanza, Brighton se convertiría en la primera ciudad del Reino Unido en tener un proyecto de ley de este tipo. [55] [se necesita una mejor fuente ]

Geografía [ editar ]

Al este de Brighton, acantilados de tiza protegidos por un malecón se elevan desde la playa.
El Wellesbourne subterráneo puede subir a la superficie durante las fuertes lluvias, como en noviembre de 2000 cuando inundó London Road en el pueblo de Preston.

Brighton se encuentra entre South Downs y el Canal de la Mancha al norte y al sur, respectivamente. La costa de Sussex forma una bahía amplia y poco profunda entre los promontorios de Selsey Bill y Beachy Head ; Brighton se desarrolló cerca del centro de esta bahía alrededor de un río estacional , el Wellesbourne (o Whalesbone), que fluía desde South Downs sobre Patcham . [7] [56] Esto desembocaba en el Canal de la Mancha en la playa cerca de East Cliff, formando "el punto de drenaje natural de Brighton". [57]

Detrás del estuario había un estanque estancado llamado Pool o Poole, llamado así desde la época medieval. [nota 2] Esto fue construido con casas y tiendas a partir de 1793, cuando Wellesbourne fue alcantarillado para evitar inundaciones, [57] [58] y solo el nombre de la carretera (Pool Valley, originalmente Pool Lane) [59] marca su sitio. Una casa original sobrevive desde la época del cerramiento de la piscina. [7] Detrás de Pool Valley está Old Steine (históricamente The Steyne ), originalmente una zona plana y pantanosa donde los pescadores secaban sus redes. El Wellesbourne reaparece ocasionalmente durante épocas de fuertes lluvias prolongadas; autor Mark Antony Lowerse refirió a un dibujo de principios del siglo XIX del Pabellón Real que muestra "un gran charco de agua al otro lado del Steyne". [60]

A pesar de la afirmación del escritor del siglo XVI Andrew Boorde de que "Bryght-Hempston [está] entre los puertos nobles y los paraísos del reino", [61] Brighton nunca se desarrolló como un puerto importante: más bien, se consideró como parte de Shoreham . Sin embargo, las descripciones "Puerto de Brighthelmston" o "Puerto de Brighton" se utilizaron a veces entre los siglos XIV y XIX, como por ejemplo en 1766 cuando sus límites teóricos se definieron con fines aduaneros. [62]

El East Cliff se extiende por varias millas desde Pool Valley hacia Rottingdean y Saltdean , alcanzando 24 metros (80 pies) sobre el nivel del mar. El suelo debajo de él, una mezcla de aluvión y arcilla con algunos escombros de pedernal y tiza , ha experimentado erosión durante muchos años. [63] El acantilado en sí, como el resto del suelo de Brighton, es tiza. [7] Debajo de esto hay capas delgadas de arena verde superior e inferior separadas por una banda más gruesa de arcilla de Gault . [64] La tierra se inclina hacia arriba gradualmente de sur a norte hacia la cima de los Downs.

Los principales enlaces de transporte se desarrollaron a lo largo del fondo del valle de Wellesbourne, desde el cual la tierra asciende abruptamente, particularmente en el lado este. El asentamiento más antiguo fue en la playa en el fondo del valle, [56] que estaba parcialmente protegida de la erosión por una barra de pizarra submarina . Los cambios en el nivel del mar afectaron la playa varias veces: 40 acres (16 ha) desaparecieron en la primera mitad del siglo XIV, [65] y la Gran Tormenta de 1703 causó una destrucción generalizada. Las primeras defensas marítimas se erigieron en 1723, [65] y un siglo después se construyó un largo malecón. [63]

Paseo marítimo de Brighton desde el Palace Pier

Clima [ editar ]

Brighton has a temperate climate: its Köppen climate classification is Cfb. It is characterised by cool summers, and cool winter with frequent cloudy and rainy periods.[66] Average rainfall levels increase as the land rises: the 1958–1990 mean was 740 millimetres (29 in) on the seafront and about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) at the top of the South Downs above Brighton.[66] Storms caused serious damage in 1703, 1806, 1824, 1836, 1848, 1850, 1896, 1910 and 1987. Heavy snow is rare, but particularly severe falls were recorded in 1881 and 1967.[66]

Boundaries and areas[edit]

At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, Brighton was in the Rape of Lewes and the Hundred of Welesmere. The new Hundred of Whalesbone, which covered the parishes of Brighton, West Blatchington, Preston and Hove, was formed in 1296. Parishes moved in and out several times, and by 1801 only Brighton and West Blatchington were included in the Hundred.[70]

In its original form, Brighton parish covered about 1,640 acres (660 ha) between the English Channel, Hove, Preston, Ovingdean and Rottingdean. The borough (but not the civil parish) was first extended from 31 October 1873, when 905 acres (366 ha) was annexed from Preston civil parish. In 1894 the part outside the borough became Preston Rural civil parish and Preston civil parish continued in the borough. On 1 April 1889 Brighton became a county borough.

On 1 October 1923, 94 acres (38 ha) were added to Brighton borough and to Preston civil parish from Patcham parish: Brighton Corporation was developing the Moulsecoomb estate there at the time. On 1 April 1928, Brighton civil parish was extended to include Preston civil parish. On the same date the borough grew by nearly five times by adding Ovingdean and Rottingdean parishes in their entirety and parts of Falmer, Patcham and West Blatchington; it also exchanged small parts with Hove municipal borough. All the areas added to the borough became part of Brighton civil parish.[71] From 1 April 1952, more of Falmer and part of the adjacent Stanmer parish were added; 20 years later, land and marine territory associated with the new Brighton Marina development also became part of Brighton. Except for a small addition of rural land in 1993 (from Pyecombe parish), Brighton Borough's boundaries remained the same until it was joined to Hove Borough in 1997 to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.[69]

The old boundary between Brighton and Hove is most clearly seen on the seafront, where the King Edward Peace Statue (1912) straddles the border, and in a twitten called Boundary Passage which runs northwards from Western Road to Montpelier Road.[72] There is a Grade II-listed parish boundary marker stone in this passageway.[73] Between Western Road and the seafront, the boundary runs up Little Western Street (pavement on eastern side, in Brighton), but it is not visible.[72] Northwards from Western Road, it runs to the west of Norfolk Road, Norfolk Terrace, Windlesham Road and Windlesham Gardens in the Montpelier area, then along the south side of Davigdor Road to Seven Dials. From there it runs along the west side of Dyke Road as far as Withdean Road in Withdean, at which point it crosses Dyke Road so that the section north of that is part of Hove parish. The boundary continues to follow Dyke Road towards Devil's Dyke on the South Downs.[74]

Governance and politics[edit]

Brighton Pavilion MP Caroline Lucas is the only Green MP in the UK Parliament.

Brighton is covered by two constituencies in the Parliament of the United Kingdom: Brighton Kemptown and Brighton Pavilion. Both are marginal constituencies which were held by Labour from 1997 to 2010.[75] In the 2017 general election, Brighton Kemptown elected the Labour MP Lloyd Russell-Moyle, replacing a Conservative MP; he was re-elected in the 2019 general election. In the 2010 general election Brighton Pavilion elected Caroline Lucas, the first Green Party MP; she was re-elected in 2015, 2017 and again at the 2019 general election.

As of 2021, there are 21 wards in the city of Brighton and Hove, of which 12 are in Brighton. Regency, St Peter's & North Laine, Preston Park, Withdean, Patcham, Hollingdean & Stanmer and Hanover & Elm Grove are part of the Brighton Pavilion constituency; Moulsecoomb & Bevendean, Queen's Park, East Brighton, Woodingdean and Rottingdean Coastal are covered by the Brighton Kemptown constituency.[76]

The newly created Borough of Brighton consisted of six wards in 1854: St Nicholas, St Peter, Pier, Park, Pavilion and West. When the territory was extended to include part of Preston parish in 1873, the new area became a seventh ward named Preston. The seven were split into 14 in 1894: Hanover, Kemp Town (renamed King's Cliff in 1908), Lewes Road, Montpelier, Pavilion, Pier, Preston, Preston Park, Queen's Park, Regency, St John, St Nicholas, St Peter, and West. Preston ward was extended in 1923 to incorporate the area taken into the borough from Patcham parish in 1923 for the construction of the Moulsecoomb estate, and in 1928 the ward was divided into four: Hollingbury, Moulsecoomb, Preston and Preston Park. Elm Grove and Patcham wards were created at the same time, bringing the total to 19. There were further changes in 1952, 1955 and 1983, at which time there were 16 wards.[77] This situation continued until 1 April 1997, when Hove and its wards became part of the new unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.[78]

Brighton Town Hall dates from 1830.

Brighton Town Hall occupies a large site in The Lanes. Medieval Brighthelmston had a town hall, although it was called the Townhouse and functioned more like a market hall. A later building (1727) known as the Town Hall was principally used as a workhouse. Work on the first purpose-built town hall began in 1830; Thomas Read Kemp laid the first stone, and Thomas Cooper designed it on behalf of the Brighton Town Commissioners (of which he was a member). Brighton Corporation spent £40,000 to extend it in 1897–99 to the Classical design of Brighton Borough Surveyor Francis May. Despite this, the building was too small for municipal requirements by the mid-20th century, and extra council buildings were built in various locations throughout Brighton Borough Council's existence: the most recent, Bartholomew House and Priory House next to the town hall, were finished in 1987.[79][80] The town hall ceased to be responsible solely for Brighton's affairs when Brighton and Hove were united in 1997, but it is still used by Brighton & Hove City Council—particularly for weddings and civil ceremonies.[81]

The presence of a British subsidiary of the United States arms company EDO Corporation on the Home Farm Industrial Estate in Moulsecoomb has been the cause of protests since 2004. The premises were significantly damaged in January 2009 when protesters broke in.[82]

Economy[edit]

In 1985, the Borough Council described three "myths" about Brighton's economy. Common beliefs were that most of the working population commuted to London every day; that tourism provided most of Brighton's jobs and income; or that the borough's residents were "composed entirely of wealthy theatricals and retired businesspeople" rather than workers.[37] Brighton has been an important centre for commerce and employment since the 18th century. It is home to several major companies, some of which employ thousands of people locally; as a retail centre it is of regional importance; creative, digital and new media businesses are increasingly significant; and, although Brighton was never a major industrial centre, its railway works contributed to Britain's rail industry in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the manufacture of steam locomotives.

Since the amalgamation of Brighton and Hove, economic and retail data has been produced at a citywide level only. Examples of statistics include: Brighton and Hove's tourism industry contributes £380m to the economy and employs 20,000 people directly or indirectly; the city has 9,600 registered companies; and a 2001 report identified it as one of five "supercities for the future".[83] In the past couple of years tourists to Brighton and Hove have fallen in numbers. Over 2016, day visitors to Brighton and Hove dropped by an average of 2,400 per day.[84][85] In August 2017, new figures for the year showed Brighton's tourism had fallen by a further 1 per cent on the previous year.[86]

Commerce and industry[edit]

Events at the Brighton Centre are important to Brighton's economy.

Brighton's largest private sector employer is American Express, whose European headquarters are at John Street.[87] As of 2012, about 3,000 people work there.[88] Planning permission to demolish the old Amex offices and build a replacement was granted in 2009, and work started in March 2010. Other major employers include Lloyds Bank, Legal & General, Asda (which has hypermarkets at Hollingbury and Brighton Marina), Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company and call-centre operator Inkfish.[83] In 2012, it was reported that about 1,500 of Gatwick Airport's 21,000 workers lived in the city of Brighton and Hove.[89]

Brighton is a popular destination for conferences, exhibitions and trade fairs, and has had a purpose-built conference centre—the Brighton Centre—since 1977. Direct income from the Brighton Centre's 160 events per year is £8 million,[note 4] and a further £50 million is generated indirectly by visitors spending money during their stay. Events range from political party conferences to concerts.[90]

.
The Hollingbury Industrial Estate has large industrial, commercial and retail buildings such as Sussex House (left) and Exion 27 (right)

The Hollingbury Industrial Estate is one of the largest such facilities in Brighton; in its early days about 6,000 people were employed, principally in industrial jobs, but in the late 20th and early 21st centuries its focus has switched to commercial and retail development,[91] limiting Brighton's potential for industrial growth. Brighton Corporation laid out the estate on 18 acres (7.3 ha) of land around Crowhurst Road in 1950. By 1956, large-scale employment was provided at a bakery, a typewriter factory and a machine tools manufacturer among others. Most of the large factories closed during the recessions of the 1980s and 1990s, employment fell to 1,000, and structural changes started in the mid-1980s with a move towards small-scale industrial units (the Enterprise Estate was finished in October 1985) and then retail warehouses. Asda's superstore opened in November 1987, MFI followed two years later, and other retail units were built in the 1990s.[92] Two large headquarters buildings were vacated in quick succession when British Bookshops left in March 2011[93] and The Argus newspaper moved out of its headquarters in 2012—although the Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company signed a contract to move its 1,250 employees into the latter building.[94]

Brighton has a high density of businesses involved in the media sector, particularly digital or "new media", and since the 1990s has been referred to as "Silicon Beach".[95] By 2007, over 250 new media business had been founded in Brighton. Brandwatch is a social media monitoring company based in offices near Brighton station. Computer game design company Black Rock Studio was founded in 1998 and was taken over by Disney Interactive Studios,[83][95] who closed it down in 2011.[96] The Gamer Network, whose portfolio of websites relating to computer gaming (including Eurogamer) and creative industries was founded in 1999, is based in Brighton.[97]

By the early 21st century, the market for office accommodation in the city was characterised by fluctuating demand and a lack of supply of high-quality buildings. As an example, the Trafalgar Place development (c. 1990), "now considered a prime office location", stood partly empty for a decade.[98] Exion 27 (built in 2001), a high-tech, energy-efficient office development at Hollingbury, remained empty for several years and is still not in commercial use: it houses some administrative departments of the University of Brighton. It was Brighton's first ultramodern commercial property and was intended for mixed commercial and industrial use, but its completion coincided with a slump in demand for high-tech premises.[99][100]

Retail and shopping[edit]

Brighton is well known for the great shopping, with a high number of independent shops, which add to the character of the city.

Walking from Brighton station towards the seafront, first is the North Laine area, stretching from Trafalgar Street, Kensington Gardens, Sydney Street, Gardner Street and Bond Street and is mostly pedestrianised. The North Laine area is a retail, leisure and residential area immediately north of the Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Laine" meaning "fields", although the misnomer "North Lanes" is often used to describe the area. The North Laine contains a mix of businesses dominated by cafés, bars, theatres, and over 400 shops independent and avant-garde shops including an erotic shop and indoor flea markets.

The Lanes is a tourist attraction occupied by small independent shops.

The Lanes which is characterised by a labyrinth of narrow alleyways form a retail, leisure and residential area near the seafront, following the street pattern of the original fishing village. The Lanes contain predominantly clothing stores, jewellers, antique shops, restaurants and pubs.

Churchill Square is a shopping centre with a floor space of 470,000 sq ft (44,000 m2) and over 80 shops, several restaurants and 1,600 car-parking spaces.[101] It was built in the 1960s as an open-air, multi-level pedestrianised shopping centre, but was rebuilt and enlarged in 1998 and is no longer open-air. Further retail areas include Western Road and London Road, the latter of which is currently undergoing extensive regeneration in the form of new housing and commercial properties.[102]

There are two weekly flea market / bootfairs in Brighton on Sunday mornings, one at Brighton Marina on the top open-air level of the carpark, and another at Brighton Racecourse.

Landmarks[edit]

Palace Pier at dusk

The Royal Pavilion, a Grade I listed building,[103] is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 19th century, under the direction of the architect John Nash. It is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental interior. Other Indo-Saracenic buildings in Brighton include the Sassoon Mausoleum, now, with the bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as a chic supper club.

Brighton Marine Palace and Pier (long known as the Palace Pier) opened in 1899; it features a funfair, restaurants and arcade halls.[104] The West Pier was built in 1866 and is one of only two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom; it has been closed since 1975. For some time it was under consideration for restoration, but two fires in 2003, and other setbacks, led to these plans being abandoned.[105] Nevertheless, publicity material presented in question-and-answer form during the building of the British Airways i360 observation tower (see below) maintained that the building of the tower would not prove prejudicial to the eventual restoration of the pier.

The observation tower, located at the shore end of the West Pier, opened on 4 August 2016.[106] At 162 metres (531.49 feet) high, and with an observation pod rising to 138 metres (452.75 feet), the i360 is Britain's highest observation tower outside London – taller even than the London Eye.[107]

Brighton Clock Tower, built in 1888 for Queen Victoria's jubilee,[108] stands at the intersection of Brighton's busiest thoroughfares.

Volk's Electric Railway runs along the inland edge of the beach from Palace Pier to Black Rock and Brighton Marina. It was created in 1883 and is the world's oldest operating electric railway.[109]

The Grand Hotel was built in 1864. The Brighton hotel bombing occurred there. Its nighttime blue lighting is particularly prominent along the foreshore.[110]

Churches and other places of worship[edit]

St Nicholas Church, Brighton's original parish church (April 2018)

St Nicholas Church is the oldest building[dubious ] in Brighton (13 century[dubious ]),[111] commonly known as "The Mother Church".[112] Other notable Anglican churches include the very tall (the highest church interior in Britain) brick-built St Bartholomew's (1874) designed by the architect Edmund Scott;[113] St Peter's (1828); and St Martin's (1875), noted for its ornate interior. Brighton's Quakers run the Friends Meeting House in the Lanes.[114] There is an active Unitarian community based in a Grade II listed building in New Road.[115] Brighton has six listed Roman Catholic churches; St John the Baptist's Church (1835) in Kemptown is the earliest surviving Roman Catholic church in the city.[116]

Brighton and Hove has five synagogues: New Church Road Synagogue; Holland Road Synagogue; Brighton & Hove Progressive Synagogue; Brighton & Hove Reform Synagogue; and Middle Street Synagogue. The Middle Street Synagogue is a Grade II listed building built in 1874–75; it is being gradually restored by English Heritage. There are also several mosques[117] and Buddhist centres.[118]

Beaches[edit]

Brighton Beach, looking from the Palace Pier eastwards. The spiral tower is a Zip line ride. (June 2018)
Cliff Beach, Britain's first naturist beach

Brighton has a 5.4-mile (8.7 km) expanse of shingle beach,[65] part of the unbroken 8-mile (13 km) section within the city limits.[note 5] Neighbouring Hove is known for its hundreds of painted timber beach huts, but brick-walled chalets are also available on Brighton seafront, especially towards Rottingdean and Saltdean.[119] Especially east of the Palace Pier, a flat sandy foreshore is exposed at low tide.[65] The Palace Pier section of the beach has been awarded blue flag status.[120] Part of the beach adjoining Madeira Drive, to the east of the city centre, has been redeveloped into a sports complex and opened to the public in March 2007, with courts for pursuits such as beach volleyball and ultimate Frisbee among others.

The city council owns all the beaches, which are divided into named sections by groynes—the first of which were completed in 1724. Eastwards from the Hove boundary, the names are Boundary, Norfolk, Bedford, Metropole, Grand (referring to the four hotels with those names), Centre, King's, Old Ship, Volk's, Albion, Palace Pier, Aquarium, Athina (where the MS Athina B ran aground), Paston, Banjo, Duke's, Cliff, Crescent and Black Rock. Cliff Beach is a nudist beach.[121] Beyond Black Rock, the cliffs (part of the Brighton to Newhaven Cliffs Site of Special Scientific Interest) rise to more than 100 feet (30 m) and there are three small beaches at Ovingdean Gap, Rottingdean Gap and Saltdean Gap. All are connected by the Undercliff Walk,[65] which has been affected by several cliff falls since 2000.[122]

Since the demolition in 1978 of the Black Rock open-air lido at the eastern end of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed and now features one of Europe's largest marinas. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall. Since 2003 a series of developments have been proposed but have come to nothing, including housing, a five-star hotel with a winter garden, and an 11,000-seat sports arena.[123]

The seafront is also home to many restaurants, sports facilities, amusement arcades, nightclubs and bars.[124]

Culture[edit]

Cafes and restaurants[edit]

Brighton is characterised by small dining establishments and independent coffeehouses. Brighton has about 250 restaurants.[125]

Cinema[edit]

Odeon Kingswest on Brighton seafront opened in 1973.

Brighton featured in a number of popular movies including Carry on at Your Convenience (1971), Quadrophenia (1979), The End of the Affair (1999), Wimbledon (2004), MirrorMask (2005), Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging (2008), The Young Victoria (2009), Brighton Rock (2010 and 1947) and The Boat that Rocked (2009).[126]

The Duke of York's Picturehouse,[127] dating from 1910,[128] was opened by Violet Melnotte-Wyatt. It is the country's oldest purpose-built cinema and was Brighton's first Electric Bioscope, which still operates as an arthouse cinema. The Duke of York's Picturehouse expanded in 2012, adding two additional screens in a different location. The company now occupies the upstairs of Komedia, situated on Gardner Street, central Brighton.[129] There are two multiplex cinemas, the Odeon on North Street and Cineworld in the Marina.[128]

Festivals and rallies[edit]

Each May the city hosts the Brighton Festival and Brighton Fringe, the second largest arts festival in the UK (after Edinburgh). This includes processions such as the Children's Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, the Artists' Open Houses, are homes of artists and craftspeople opened to the public as galleries, and usually selling the work of the occupants. Since 2002, these have been organised independently of the official Festival and Fringe.[citation needed]

Brighton Fringe runs alongside Brighton Festival, and has grown to be one of the largest fringe festivals in the world.[130] Together with the street performers from Brighton Festival's "Streets of Brighton" events, and the Royal Mile-esque outdoor performances that make up "Fringe City", outdoor spectacles and events more than double during May.[131]

Other festivals include The Great Escape, featuring three nights of live music in venues across the city; the Soundwaves Festival in June, which shows classical music composed in the 21st Century, and involves both amateur and professional performers; Paddle Round the Pier; Brighton Live which each September stages a week of free gigs in pubs to show local bands; Burning the Clocks, a winter solstice celebration; Brighton Digital Festival, annually exploring digital technology and culture; and Brighton Pride, the first of its kind in the UK,[132] which attracts 450,000 to the city over the Pride weekend.[133] Disability Pride Brighton promotes acceptance and visibility for area residents who are disabled.[134][135][136][137]

The Kemptown area has its own small annual street festival, the Kemptown Carnival, and the Hanover area similarly has a "Hanover Day".

"The Big Beach Boutique II": over 250,000 watched Fatboy Slim (July 2002)

Local resident Fatboy Slim has put on three "Big Beach Boutique" shows, in 2002,[138] 2006[139] and 2008.[140] An inaugural White Nights (Nuit Blanche) all-night arts festival took place in October 2008 and continued for 4 years until it was postponed in 2012 due to a lack of European funding.[141] 2009 saw the first Brighton Zine Fest[142] celebrating zine and DIY culture within the city.

Seafront display of Minis after a London to Brighton drive

Brighton is the terminus of a number of London-to-Brighton rides and runs, such as the veteran car run and bike ride. Transport rallies are also hosted on the seafront. Groups of mods and rockers still bring their scooters and motorbikes to the city, but their gatherings are now much more sedate than the violent 1960s confrontations depicted in Quadrophenia.

Food and drink related festivals include the traditional Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more recent Fiery Foods Chilli Festival.[143] There is also a twice-yearly general food festival.[144] The main Sussex beer festival is held in nearby Hove, and there is a smaller beer festival in the Hanover area.

Brighton is the home of the UK's first Walk of Fame which celebrates the many rich and famous people associated with the city.[145]

LGBT community[edit]

Rainbow flags in St James's Street, Kemptown

The lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) community in Brighton is one of the largest and most prominent in the UK, and Brighton has been named the "gay capital of the UK".[6] There is record of LGBT history in the city dating to the 19th century.[146] Many LGBT pubs, clubs, bars, restaurants, cafes and shops are located around Brighton and in particular around St James's Street in Kemptown, including Club Revenge.[147][148] Several LGBT charities, publishers, social and support groups are also based in the city. Brighton Pride is usually celebrated at the start of August.[149][150]

Museums[edit]

Brighton museums include Brighton Museum & Art Gallery, Preston Manor, Booth Museum of Natural History, Brighton Toy and Model Museum, and Brighton Fishing Museum, the long established social epicentre of the seafront, which includes artefacts from the West Pier. The Royal Pavilion is also open to the public, serving as a museum to the British Regency.

Night-life and popular music[edit]

Brighton has many night-life hotspots[151] and is associated with popular musicians including Fatboy Slim, Kirk Brandon, Tim Booth, Nick Cave, David Van Day from Dollar, Adam Freeland, Orbital (band), and Robert Smith. Live music venues include the Concorde2,[152] Brighton Centre and the Brighton Dome, where ABBA received a substantial boost to their career when they won the Eurovision Song Contest 1974. Many events and performance companies operate in the city. Brighton also has the most electronic music events in the UK.[153]Brighton is also host to The Great Escape music festival every May. Brighton has produced several successful bands and music artists including Royal Blood, The Kooks, Fatboy Slim, the Freemasons, the Levellers and The Maccabees, Electric Soft Parade, British Sea Power, the Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster, The Xcerts, Architects, Blood Red Shoes and Rizzle Kicks. Brighton is also home to several independent record labels. The second half of 1973 rock opera Quadrophenia by The Who takes place at Brighton Beach.

Theatre[edit]

The Theatre Royal presents a range of West End and touring musicals and plays, along with performances of opera and ballet.

Theatres include the Brighton Dome and associated Pavilion Theatre, the expanded Komedia (primarily a comedy and music venue but also a theatre), the Old Market which was renovated and re-opened in 2010 and the Theatre Royal[154] which celebrated its 200th anniversary in 2007. The Attenborough Centre for the Creative arts is nearby, part of the University of Sussex campus. There are also smaller theatres such as the Marlborough Theatre, the New Venture, and the Brighton Little Theatre. The city has the new purpose built Brighton Open Air Theatre, or B•O•A•T, which opened for the Brighton Festival in May 2015.[155]

Attenborough Centre for the Creative Arts, part of the University of Sussex

Parks[edit]

Stanmer Park sits on the northern edge of Brighton and extends into the South Downs. The largest urban park in the city is Preston Park and The Level was recently developed. Other parks include East Brighton Park and Wild Park.[156]

Education[edit]

Aerial view of the Sussex university campus surrounded by sports fields

The University of Sussex, established in 1961 as the first of the plate-glass universities, is a campus research intensive university between Stanmer Park and Falmer, four miles (6 km) from the city centre. The university is home to the Institute of Development Studies and the Science Policy Research Unit, amongst over 40 other established research centres, and has been ranked first in the world for Development studies by the World University Rankings.[157][158][159] Served by trains (to Falmer railway station) and 24-hour buses, it has a student population of around 20,000 students of which about a quarter are postgraduates.[160] The university has been ranked 40th in the UK by the Complete University Guide in its 2021 rankings[161] and 246th in the world by the World University Rankings of 2021.[162]

The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, had a student population of 20,968 in 2005/2006 of which 79 per cent were undergraduates and 63 per cent female.[163] The university is on several sites with additional buildings in Falmer, Moulsecoomb, Eastbourne and Hastings.[164]

In 2001 the music college BIMM (British and Irish Modern Music Institute) opened in Brighton under the name The Brighton Institute of Modern Music. The college has approximately 1500 students across Brighton, its degree courses at BIMM are validated by The University of Sussex and diploma courses are taught at the Brighton Aldridge Community Academy. Notable alumni have included James Bay, The Kooks and Tom Odell. Since the college opened it has expanded to become Europe's largest music college with 6500 students studying at eight campuses across Europe including Bristol, London, Manchester, Berlin, Dublin, Hamburg and Birmingham.

In 2003, the universities of Sussex and Brighton formed a medical school, known as Brighton and Sussex Medical School. The school was one of four new medical schools to be created as part of a government programme to increase the number of NHS doctors. The school is based at the University of Sussex campus and works closely with the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust.

Brighton & Hove City Council is responsible for 80 schools, of which 54 are in Brighton.[165]

A range of non-university courses for students over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college, Greater Brighton Metropolitan College (previously City College). More academic subjects can be studied by 16–18-year-olds at Brighton Hove & Sussex Sixth Form College (BHASVIC) in the Seven Dials area. Varndean College in North Brighton occupies a commanding position. The 1920s building is celebrated for its façade and internal quads. The college offers academic A levels, The International Baccalaureate and vocational courses.

As Brighton is home to various public universities and colleges, it also home to private colleges such as Hove College located near the County Cricket Ground, the college was established in 1977 and offers higher educational courses such as vocational, certificate, professional, diploma and Advanced Diploma qualifications and has a close partnership with the University of Brighton.

There are state schools and some faith schools. Notable state schools include[166] Longhill High School, Varndean School, Patcham High School, Dorothy Stringer High School, Blatchington Mill School and Sixth Form College, Brighton Aldridge Community Academy and Kings School Hove.

There are a number of independent schools, including Brighton College, Roedean School, Steiner School, BHHS and a Montessori School. As with the state schools, some independents are faith-based; Torah Academy, the last Jewish primary school, became a Pre-K/Nursery School at the end of the 2007. The Brighton Institute of Modern Music, a fully accredited music college, opened in 2001 and has since expanded to five locations throughout Britain.[167]

Sport[edit]

Brighton Marina

Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club is the city's professional association football team. After playing at the Goldstone Ground for 95 years, the club spent 2 years ground-sharing 70 miles away at Gillingham F.C. before returning to the town as tenants of the Withdean Stadium.[168] At the start of the 2011–12 season the club moved permanently to Falmer Stadium, a Premier League level stadium colloquially known as 'the Amex'. Notable achievements include winning promotion to the Football League First Division in 1979 and staying there for 4 seasons. They reached the 1983 FA Cup Final drawing 2–2 with Manchester United before losing in the replay 5 days later. The 2017–18 football season saw Brighton's debut in the Premier League after a win against Wigan Athletic guaranteed automatic promotion to the top flight.[169]

Whitehawk Football Club is a semi-professional association football club based in a suburb in east Brighton.[170] They play in the Isthmian League South East having won promotion three times in the space four years between 2009 and 2013, before getting relegated twice in quick succession in the 2017–18 and 2018–19 season. Games are played at The Enclosed Ground,[170] which is set into the South Downs close to Brighton Marina.

Brighton Football Club (RFU) is one of the oldest Rugby Clubs in England.[171]Brighton was chosen as one of the 13 Rugby World Cup 2015 host cities,[172] with two games being played at the 30,750 capacity Falmer Stadium. (Although it was named the "Brighton Community Stadium" throughout the tournament for sponsorship reasons.) One of the two games played was one of the biggest shocks in the history of Rugby Union,[173] with Japan defeating South Africa 34 points to 32, with a try in the dying minutes of the game. The other game was between Samoa and the United States.

Brighton & Hove Hockey Club is a large hockey club that train and play their matches at Blatchington Mill School. The men's 1XI gained promotion in 2013 to the England Hockey League system, Conference East.[174]

Sussex County Cricket Club play at Eaton Road in Hove.[citation needed]

Motoring events take place on Madeira Drive, a piece of roadway on Brighton's seafront, throughout the year. It was originally constructed to host what is commonly held to be the world's oldest motor race, the Brighton Speed Trials, which has been running since 1905. The event is organised by the Brighton and Hove Motor Club and normally takes place on the second Saturday in September each year.[citation needed]

Brighton has a horse-racing course, Brighton Racecourse, with the unusual feature that when the full length of the course is to be used, some of the grass turf of the track has to be laid over the tar at the top of Wilson Avenue, a public road, which therefore has to be closed for the races. A greyhound racing circuit – the Brighton & Hove Greyhound Stadium – in Hove is run by Coral, at which Motorcycle speedway racing was staged in 1928.[citation needed]

Brighton Sailing Club has been operating since the 1870s.[citation needed]

The Brighton and Hove Pétanque Club runs an annual triples, doubles and singles competition, informal KOs, winter and summer league, plus Open competitions with other clubs. The club is affiliated to Sussex Pétanque, the local region of the English Pétanque Association, so they can also play at a Regional and National level. The Peace Statue terrain is the official pétanque terrain situated on the seafront near the West Pier.[175]

Brighton has two competitive swimming clubs: Brighton SC[176] formed in 1860 claims to be the oldest swimming club in England; and Brighton Dolphin SC[177] was formed in 1891 as Brighton Ladies Swimming.

Amateur track cycling is held at the Preston Park Velodrome,[178] the oldest velodrome in the UK, built in 1877.

Transport[edit]

The Brighton Main Line railway (left) and A23 road link Brighton to London.

Brighton has several railway stations, many bus routes, coach services and taxis. A Rapid Transport System has been under consideration for some years.[179] Trolleybuses, trams, ferries and hydrofoil services have operated in the past.

Road[edit]

Brighton is connected to the trunk road network by the A23 (London Road) northwards, and by two east–west routes: the A259 along the coast and the A27 trunk route inland which joins the M27 motorway near Portsmouth. The A23 joins the M23 motorway at Pease Pottage near Gatwick Airport.[180] The A27 originally ran through the urban area along Old Shoreham Road and Lewes Road, but it now follows the route of the Brighton Bypass (final section opened in 1992) and the old alignment has become the A270. A bypass was first proposed in 1932, six routes were submitted for approval in 1973, and the Department of the Environment published its recommended route in 1980. Public inquiries took place in 1983 and 1987, construction started in 1989 and the first section—between London Road at Patcham and the road to Devil's Dyke—opened in summer 1991.[181]

By 1985 there were about 5,000 parking spaces in central Brighton. The largest car parks are at London Road, King Street, and the Churchill Square/Regency Road/Russell Road complex.[182] In 1969, a 520-space multi-storey car park was built beneath the central gardens of Regency Square.[182][183]

Brighton Station Concourse

Rail[edit]

Frequent trains operate from Brighton railway station. Many Brighton residents commute to work in London[184] and destinations include London Victoria, London Bridge and St Pancras International. Most trains serve Gatwick Airport, and those operated by Thameslink continue to St Albans, Luton, Luton Airport Parkway and Bedford. The fastest service from London Victoria takes 51 minutes.[185] The West Coastway Line serves stations to Hove, Worthing, Portsmouth and Southampton; and the East Coastway Line runs via Lewes to Newhaven, Eastbourne and Hastings, crossing the landmark London Road viaduct en route and providing "a dramatic high-level view" of Brighton.[185] A wider range of long-distance destinations was served until 2007–08 when rationalisation caused the ending of InterCity services via Kensington (Olympia) and Reading to Birmingham, Manchester and Edinburgh.[185] Twice-daily long-distance services to Bristol and Great Malvern are operated by Great Western Railway via the West Coastway Line.

Bus[edit]

Until deregulation in 1986, bus services in Brighton were provided by Southdown Motor Services and Brighton Borough Transport under a joint arrangement called "Brighton Area Transport Services". Southdown were part of the nationalised NBC group and were based at Freshfield Road in the Kemptown area; Brighton Borough Transport were owned by the council and used the former tram depot at Lewes Road as their headquarters. Joint tickets were available and revenue was shared.[186] The Brighton & Hove Bus Company, owned by the Go-Ahead Group since 1993, now runs most bus services in Brighton. Its fleet has about 280 buses.[187] Compass Travel, The Big Lemon, Metrobus, Stagecoach South operate services to central Brighton. The city had 1,184 bus stops in 2012, 456 of which had a shelter.[188] Real-time travel information displays are provided at many stops.[187]

A Brighton & Hove bus service to East Moulsecoomb

The only park and ride facility in Brighton is based at the Withdean Stadium. It does not offer a dedicated shuttle bus service: intending passengers must join the Brighton & Hove Bus Company's route 27 service to Saltdean—which travels via Brighton railway station, the Clock Tower and Old Steine—and pay standard fares.[189] The 20-year City Plan released in January 2013 ruled out an official park-and-ride facility, stating it would be an "inefficient use of public money, particularly in an era of declining car use". Councillors and residents in Woodingdean and Rottingdean have claimed that streets and car parks in those areas have become unofficial park-and-ride sites: drivers park for free and take buses into the city centre.[190]

Air[edit]

Brighton Airport is 9 miles (14 km) west of Brighton near the town of Shoreham-by-Sea.[180][191][192] Additionally, Brighton is easily accessible via Gatwick which is a 20 minute Train journey to the north of Brighton

Notable people[edit]

A list of notable individuals who have stayed in Brighton and Hove

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ De Tabe Glandulari, sive, De usu aquæ marinæ in morbis glandularum dissertatio (1750); translated into English in 1753 as Glandular Diseases, or a Dissertation on the Use of Sea Water in the Affections of the Glands.[26]
  2. ^ The name was documented as Poole in 1296 and 1497.[57]
  3. ^ Area of the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.[69]
  4. ^ 2009 figures.[90]
  5. ^ Until the extension of Brighton's boundaries to include Rottingdean and Saltdean in 1928, the coastline between the Hove and Rottingdean parish boundaries measured 2.2 miles (3.5 km).[65]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "The Mayor of Brighton and Hove" Archived 12 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine Brighton and Hove City Council. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  2. ^ OS Explorer map 122: Brighton and Hove. Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher:Ordnance Survey – Southampton B2 edition. Publishing Date:2009. ISBN 978-0319240816
  3. ^ "City Deal; The beginning of a great city region". Brighton and Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  4. ^ Petridis, Alexis. "Is Brighton Britain's hippest city?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  5. ^ "Brighton: 'The Happiest Place In The UK'". Sky News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Sorry Bristol, Brighton is probably the best city in the UK – Metro News". Metro. 25 March 2014. Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e Salzman, L. F., ed. (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. The Borough of Brighton". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 244–263. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d Collis 2010, p. 44.
  9. ^ Leslie & Short 1999, pp. 32–33.
  10. ^ Collis 2010, p. 39.
  11. ^ "The Bright Helm". J D Wetherspoon plc. 2009–2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  12. ^ "Brighthelm". University of Sussex. 2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  13. ^ Dale 1950, pp. 10, 34.
  14. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 3.
  15. ^ a b Carder 1990, §. 16.
  16. ^ Sampson 1994, p. 56.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Carder 1990, §. 17.
  18. ^ "Whitehawk Camp". Brighton and Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  19. ^ "Information derived from National Trust". Archived from the original on 26 October 2009.
  20. ^ Current Archaeology, 13 March 2014, "Archived Document". Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2014.. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  21. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Parker MS) (E-text) Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Seldon 2002, Ch. 2.
  23. ^ Musgrave 1981, p. 21.
  24. ^ Seldon 2002, p. 32.
  25. ^ a b c Seldon 2002, p. 33.
  26. ^ Farrant, John H. (September 2011). "Oxford DNB article: Russell, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/56302. Retrieved 13 February 2012. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  27. ^ Seldon 2002, p. 34.
  28. ^ a b Seldon 2002, pp. 34–35.
  29. ^ Gwynne 1990, p. 98.
  30. ^ Carder 1990, §. 71.
  31. ^ Mawer, Stenton & Gover 1930, p. 291.
  32. ^ "Preston Barracks, Lewes Road". My Brighton & Hove. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  33. ^ The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge, Vol III, (1847), London, Charles Knight, p. 809.
  34. ^ Carder 1990, §. 127.
  35. ^ Carder 1990, §. 34.
  36. ^ Carder 1990, p. 13
  37. ^ a b Brighton Borough Council 1985, p. 51.
  38. ^ Collis 2010, p. 73.
  39. ^ "Labour Market Profile". www.nomisweb.co.uk. Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
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Sources[edit]

Works cited
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  • Mawer, A.; Stenton, F.M.; Gover, J.E.B. (1930). The Place-Names of Sussex. 2. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
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  • Seldon, Anthony (2002). Brave New City: Brighton & Hove Past, Present, Future. Lewes: Pomegranate Press. ISBN 978-0-9542587-1-9.
General references
  • Robinson, L.J. (1966). The Lanes of Brighton: a Brief Account of the Origins of the Ancient Town of Brighthelmstone. Brighton: The Southern Publishing Co.
  • s.n. (1998). A selection of notes on the History of Hove and Brighton including a History of Hove street names and early maps of Hove. Brighton: Brighton & Hove Libraries.
  • The Daniel Wakeford song "It's a wonderful city" is filmed in the center of Brighton City, and often mentions Brighton with the phrase 'I'm in the Brighton'.

External links[edit]