|Lema (s): |
("Con la ayuda de Dios")
|Coordenadas: Coordenadas :|
|Estado soberano||Reino Unido|
|Zona horaria||UTC ± 00: 00 ( hora media de Greenwich )|
|• Verano ( DST )||UTC + 01:00 ( horario de verano británico )|
|Miembros del Parlamento||Lista de diputados|
|Policía||Policía de Devon y Cornwall|
Devon ( / d ɛ v ən / , también conocido como Devonshire ) es un condado de Inglaterra, llegando desde el canal de Bristol en el norte hasta el Canal Inglés , en el sur. Es parte del suroeste de Inglaterra , delimitada por Cornualles al oeste, Somerset al noreste y Dorset al este. La ciudad de Exeter es la capital del condado . El condado incluye los distritos de East Devon , Mid Devon , North Devon ,South Hams , Teignbridge , Torridge y West Devon . Plymouth y Torbay son cada uno geográficamente parte de Devon, pero se administran como autoridades unitarias .  Combinado como un condado ceremonial , el área de Devon es 6.707 km 2 (2.590 millas cuadradas)  y su población es de aproximadamente 1,1 millones.
Devon deriva su nombre de Dumnonia (el cambio de m a v es un cambio de consonante celta típico ). Durante la Edad del Hierro británica , la Gran Bretaña romana y la Alta Edad Media , esta fue la tierra natal de los celtas británicos Dumnonii . El asentamiento anglosajón de Gran Bretaña resultó en la asimilación parcial de Dumnonia en el Reino de Wessex durante los siglos VIII y IX. El límite occidental con Cornualles fue establecido en el río Tamar por el rey Æthelstan en 936. Devon se constituyó más tarde como condado.del Reino de Inglaterra .
Las costas norte y sur de Devon tienen acantilados y costas arenosas, y las bahías del condado contienen balnearios , pueblos pesqueros y puertos . El terreno del interior es rural, generalmente montañoso y tiene una densidad de población menor que muchas otras partes de Inglaterra. Dartmoor es el espacio abierto más grande del sur de Inglaterra, con 954 km 2 (368 millas cuadradas);  su páramo se extiende a través de una gran extensión de lecho rocoso de granito . Al norte de Dartmoor se encuentran Culm Measures y Exmoor. En los valles y tierras bajas del sur y el este de Devon, el suelo es más fértil, drenado por ríos como Exe , Culm , Teign , Dart y Otter .
Además de la agricultura, gran parte de la economía de Devon se basa en el turismo . El clima, la costa y el paisaje relativamente suaves hacen de Devon un destino para la recreación y el ocio en Inglaterra . Los visitantes se sienten particularmente atraídos por los parques nacionales de Dartmoor y Exmoor ; sus costas, incluidas las ciudades turísticas a lo largo de la costa sur conocidas colectivamente como la Riviera inglesa ; la Costa Jurásica y la Reserva de la Biosfera de la UNESCO de North Devon ; y el campo, incluido el paisaje minero de Cornualles y West Devon .
Historia [ editar ]
Toponimia [ editar ]
El nombre Devon deriva del nombre de los británicos que habitaban el suroeste de la península de Gran Bretaña en el momento de la conquista romana de Gran Bretaña conocido como Dumnonii , que se cree que significa "habitantes de los valles profundos" del proto celta * dubnos 'profundo'. En Brittonic , Devon se conoce como Welsh : Dyfnaint , Breton : Devnent y Cornish : Dewnens , cada uno de los cuales significa "valles profundos". (Para obtener una descripción de Celtic Dumnonia , consulte el artículo separado). Entre los nombres de lugares más comunes de Devon se encuentra -combeque deriva de Brittonic cwm que significa 'valle' usualmente precedido por el nombre del poseedor.
William Camden , en su edición de Britannia de 1607 , describió a Devon como parte de un país más antiguo y más amplio que una vez incluyó a Cornualles:
Aquella región que, según los geógrafos, es la primera de toda Bretaña y, cada vez más estrecha y más angosta, se adentra más en el oeste, [...] en tiempos antiguos estaba habitada por aquellos británicos a los que Solinus llamaba Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii [...] Porque su habitación en todo este Countrey es algo baja y en los valles, cuya forma de habitar se llama en la lengua británica Dan-munith, en cuyo sentido también la provincia contigua en el mismo sentido se llama en este día por los británicos Duffneit, es decir, valles bajos. [...] Pero el País de esta nación en este día está dividido en dos partes, conocidas por los nombres posteriores de Cornwall y Denshire, [...]- William Camden, Britannia . 
El término "Devon" se utiliza normalmente para fines cotidianos, por ejemplo, "Devon County Council", pero "Devonshire" sigue utilizándose en los nombres del " Regimiento de Devonshire y Dorset " (hasta 2007) y " The Devonshire Association ". Una teoría errónea es que el sufijo "condado" se debe a un error en la patente de las letras originales del duque de Devonshire , residente en Derbyshire . Sin embargo, hay referencias a "Defenascire" en textos anglosajones de antes del 1000 dC (esto significaría "Comarca de los devonianos"),  que se traduce al inglés moderno como "Devonshire".El término Devonshire puede haberse originado alrededor del siglo VIII, cuando cambió de Dumnonia.( Latín ) a Defenascir . 
Ocupación humana [ editar ]
La caverna de Kents en Torquay había producido restos humanos desde hace 30 a 40.000 años. Se cree que Dartmoor fue ocupado por pueblos cazadores-recolectores del Mesolítico desde aproximadamente el 6000 a. C. Los romanos mantuvieron la zona bajo ocupación militar durante unos 350 años. Más tarde, el área comenzó a experimentar incursiones sajonas desde el este alrededor del año 600 d.C., primero como pequeñas bandas de colonos a lo largo de las costas de la bahía de Lyme y los estuarios del sur y luego como bandas más organizadas que empujaban desde el este. Devon se convirtió en una frontera entre el Wessex británico y el anglosajón , y fue absorbido en gran parte por Wessex a mediados del siglo IX. Un estudio genético realizado por la Universidad de Oxford yEl University College London descubrió grupos genéticos separados en Cornwall y Devon, no solo había diferencias a ambos lados del Tamar, con una división casi exactamente a lo largo del límite del condado moderno que se remonta al siglo VI , sino también entre Devon y el resto. del sur de Inglaterra, y similitudes con el norte de Francia moderno, incluida Bretaña . Esto sugiere que la migración anglosajona a Devon fue más limitada que un movimiento masivo de personas.  
La frontera con Cornualles fue establecida por el rey Æthelstan en la orilla este del río Tamar en el 936 d. C. Las incursiones danesas también ocurrieron esporádicamente a lo largo de muchas partes costeras de Devon entre alrededor del 800 DC y justo antes de la época de la conquista normanda, incluida la ceca de plata en Hlidaforda Lydford en 997 y Taintona (un asentamiento en el estuario de Teign) en 1001. 
Devon fue el hogar de varios movimientos anticlericales en la Baja Edad Media . Por ejemplo, la Orden de Brothelyngham —una orden monástica falsa de 1348— cabalgaba regularmente por Exeter, secuestrando tanto a religiosos como a laicos, y extorsionándolos como rescate. 
Devon también ha aparecido en la mayoría de los conflictos civiles en Inglaterra desde la conquista normanda , incluidas las Guerras de las Rosas , el levantamiento de Perkin Warbeck en 1497, la Rebelión del Libro de Oraciones de 1549 y la Guerra Civil Inglesa . La llegada de Guillermo de Orange para lanzar la Revolución Gloriosa de 1688 tuvo lugar en Brixham .
Devon ha producido estaño , cobre y otros metales desde la antigüedad. Los mineros de estaño de Devon disfrutaron de un grado sustancial de independencia a través de la Convocación Stannary de Devon , que se remonta al siglo XII. La última sesión registrada fue en 1748. 
Economía e industria [ editar ]
Al igual que la vecina Cornualles al oeste, históricamente Devon ha estado en desventaja económica en comparación con otras partes del sur de Inglaterra , debido al declive de una serie de industrias principales, en particular la pesca, la minería y la agricultura. La agricultura ha sido una industria importante en Devon desde el siglo XIX. La crisis de la fiebre aftosa en el Reino Unido de 2001 afectó gravemente a la comunidad agrícola.  Desde entonces, algunas partes de la industria agrícola han comenzado a diversificarse y recuperarse, con un fuerte sector alimentario local y muchos productores artesanales. No obstante, en 2015, la industria láctea seguía sufriendo los bajos precios ofrecidos por la leche al por mayor por las principales lecherías y especialmente las grandes cadenas de supermercados. 
El atractivo estilo de vida de la zona está atrayendo nuevas industrias que no dependen en gran medida de la ubicación geográfica;   Dartmoor, por ejemplo, ha visto recientemente un aumento significativo en el porcentaje de sus habitantes involucrados en el sector de servicios financieros. The Met Office , el servicio meteorológico nacional e internacional del Reino Unido, se mudó a Exeter en 2003. Plymouth alberga la oficina central y la primera tienda de The Range , la única cadena minorista nacional importante con sede en Devon.
Desde el surgimiento de los balnearios con la llegada de los ferrocarriles en el siglo XIX, la economía de Devon ha dependido mucho del turismo. La economía del condado siguió la tendencia a la baja de los balnearios británicos desde mediados del siglo XX, pero con un reciente resurgimiento y regeneración de sus centros turísticos, especialmente centrados en acampar; deportes como el surf, el ciclismo, la vela y el patrimonio. Este renacimiento se ha visto favorecido por la designación de gran parte del campo y la costa de Devon como los parques nacionales de Dartmoor y Exmoor, y los sitios del Patrimonio Mundial de la Costa Jurásica y el paisaje minero de Cornwall y West Devon. En 2004, los ingresos por turismo del condado fueron de 1.200 millones de libras esterlinas. Las atracciones para visitantes más exitosas se concentran particularmente en la comida y la bebida, incluidos los restaurantes con vista al mar en el noroeste de Devon (como un ejemplo que pertenece a Damien Hurst ), caminar por el sendero de la costa suroeste , andar en bicicleta en la ruta ciclista de la costa a la costa de Devon y otras rutas ciclistas como Tarka Trail y Stover Trail; Deportes acuáticos; surf; festivales de música folclórica bajo techo y al aire libre en todo el condado y navegar en la ensenada ( ria ) rodeada de colinas de 5 millas (8,0 km ) en Salcombe.
Los ingresos varían significativamente y el promedio se ve reforzado por una alta proporción de jubilados adinerados de las principales ciudades de Europa, particularmente del resto de Inglaterra. Los ingresos en gran parte de South Hams y en los pueblos que rodean Exeter y Plymouth están por encima del promedio nacional. El recuento de demandantes de desempleados y personas que reciben ingresos muy bajos se acerca al promedio nacional del 4,5% en Torbay, Plymouth y Exeter. Sus exurbios y aldeas rurales contribuyen a un bajo nivel de desempleo en el condado administrativo, como se muestra a continuación.
La tabla también muestra el cambio de población en los diez años hasta el censo de 2011 por subdivisión. También muestra la proporción de residentes en cada distrito que dependen de los ingresos más bajos y / o prestaciones por desempleo, cuya proporción promedio nacional era del 4,5% en agosto de 2012, año para el que se han publicado los últimos conjuntos de datos. Se puede ver que el distrito más poblado de Devon es East Devon, pero solo si se excluye Torbay, que tiene un poco más de residentes, y Plymouth, que tiene aproximadamente el doble de residentes de cualquiera de estos. West Devon tiene la menor cantidad de residentes, con 63,839 en el momento del censo.
|Unidad||JSA or Inc. Supp. claimants (August 2012) % of 2011 population||JSA and Income Support claimants (August 2001) % of 2001 population||Population (April 2011)||Population (April 2001)|
|Ranked by district|
|In historic Devon|
There is a network of bus services across Devon. Bus operators include: Stagecoach (much of Devon), AVMT Buses (East Devon/Jurassic Coast), County Bus (Teignbridge) and Plymouth Citybus.
The key train operator for Devon is Great Western Railway, which operates numerous regional, local and suburban services, as well as inter-city services north to London Paddington and south to Plymouth and Penzance. Other inter-city services are operated by CrossCountry north to Manchester Piccadilly, Edinburgh Waverley, Glasgow Central, Dundee, Aberdeen and south to Plymouth and Penzance; and by South Western Railway, operating services between London Waterloo and Exeter St Davids, via the West of England Main Line. All Devon services are diesel-hauled, since there are no electrified lines in the county.
There are proposals to reopen the line from Tavistock to Bere Alston for a through service to Plymouth. The possibility of reopening the line between Tavistock and Okehampton, to provide an alternative route between Exeter and Plymouth, has also been suggested following damage to the railway's sea wall at Dawlish in 2014, which caused widespread disruption to trains between Exeter and Penzance. However, a study by Network Rail determined that maintaining the existing railway line would offer the best value for money  and work to strengthen the line at Dawlish began in 2019.
Devon County Council has proposed a 'Devon Metro' scheme to improve rail services in the county and offer a realistic alternative to car travel. This includes the delivery of Cranbrook station, plus four new stations (including Edginswell) as a priority.
Exeter Airport is the only airport in Devon that hosts passenger services. Until 2020, Flybe had its headquarters at the airport. Destinations include various locations within the UK (London City, Manchester, Belfast, Edinburgh, etc.), as well as locations in Cyprus, Italy, Netherlands, Lapland, Portugal, Spain, France, Malta, Switzerland and Turkey.
Geography and geology
Devon straddles a peninsula and so, uniquely among English counties, has two separate coastlines: on the Bristol Channel and Celtic Sea in the north, and on the English Channel in the south. The South West Coast Path runs along the entire length of both, around 65% of which is named as Heritage Coast. Before the changes to English counties in 1974, Devon was the third largest county by area and the largest of the counties not divided into county-like divisions (only Yorkshire and Lincolnshire were larger and both were sub-divided into ridings or parts, respectively). Since 1974 the county is ranked fourth by area (due to the creation of Cumbria) amongst ceremonial counties and is the third largest non-metropolitan county. The island of Lundy and the reef of Eddystone are also in Devon. The county has more mileage of road than any other county in England.
Inland, the Dartmoor National Park lies wholly in Devon, and the Exmoor National Park lies in both Devon and Somerset. Apart from these areas of high moorland the county has attractive rolling rural scenery and villages with thatched cob cottages. All these features make Devon a popular holiday destination.
In South Devon the landscape consists of rolling hills dotted with small towns, such as Dartmouth, Ivybridge, Kingsbridge, Salcombe, and Totnes. The towns of Torquay and Paignton are the principal seaside resorts on the south coast. East Devon has the first seaside resort to be developed in the county, Exmouth and the more upmarket Georgian town of Sidmouth, headquarters of the East Devon District Council. Exmouth marks the western end of the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. Another notable feature is the coastal railway line between Newton Abbot and the Exe Estuary: the red sandstone cliffs and sea views are very dramatic and in the resorts railway line and beaches are very near.
North Devon is very rural with few major towns except Barnstaple, Great Torrington, Bideford and Ilfracombe. Devon's Exmoor coast has the highest cliffs in southern Britain, culminating in the Great Hangman, a 318 m (1,043 ft) "hog's-back" hill with an 250 m (820 ft) cliff-face, located near Combe Martin Bay. Its sister cliff is the 218 m (715 ft) Little Hangman, which marks the western edge of coastal Exmoor. One of the features of the North Devon coast is that Bideford Bay and the Hartland Point peninsula are both west-facing, Atlantic facing coastlines; so that a combination of an off-shore (east) wind and an Atlantic swell produce excellent surfing conditions. The beaches of Bideford Bay (Woolacombe, Saunton, Westward Ho! and Croyde), along with parts of North Cornwall and South Wales, are the main centres of surfing in Britain.
A geological dividing line cuts across Devon roughly along the line of the Bristol to Exeter line and the M5 motorway east of Tiverton and Exeter. It is a part of the Tees-Exe line broadly dividing Britain into a southeastern lowland zone typified by gently dipping sedimentary rocks and a northwestern upland zone typified by igneous rocks and folded sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
The principal geological components of Devon are the Devonian (in north Devon, south west Devon and extending into Cornwall); the Culm Measures (north western Devon also extending into north Cornwall); and the granite intrusion of Dartmoor in central Devon, part of the Cornubian batholith forming the 'spine' of the southwestern peninsula. There are small remains of pre-Devonian rocks on the south Devon coast.
The oldest rocks which can be dated are those of the Devonian period which are approximately 395–345 million years old. Sandstones and shales were deposited in North and South Devon beneath tropical seas. In shallower waters, limestone beds were laid down in the area now near Torquay and Plymouth.This geological period was named after Devon by Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick in the 1840s and is the only British county whose name is used worldwide as a geological time period.
Devon's second major rock system is the Culm Measures, a geological formation of the Carboniferous period that occurs principally in Devon and Cornwall. The measures are so called either from the occasional presence of a soft, sooty coal, which is known in Devon as culm, or from the contortions commonly found in the beds. This formation stretches from Bideford to Bude in Cornwall, and contributes to a gentler, greener, more rounded landscape. It is also found on the western, north and eastern borders of Dartmoor.
The sedimentary rocks in more eastern parts of the county include Permian and Triassic sandstones (giving rise to east Devon's well known fertile red soils); Bunter pebble beds around Budleigh Salterton and Woodbury Common and Jurassic rocks in the easternmost parts of Devon. Smaller outcrops of younger rocks also exist, such as Cretaceous chalk cliffs at Beer Head and gravels on Haldon, plus Eocene and Oligocene ball clay and lignite deposits in the Bovey Basin, formed around 50 million years ago under tropical forest conditions.
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Devon generally has a cool oceanic climate, heavily influenced by the North Atlantic Drift. In winter snow is relatively uncommon away from high land, although there are exceptions. The county has mild summers with occasional warm spells and cool rainy periods. Winters are generally cool and the county often experiences some of the mildest winters in the world for its high latitude, with average daily maximum temperatures in January at 8 °C (46 °F). Rainfall varies significantly across the county, ranging from over 2,000 mm (79 in) on parts of Dartmoor, to around 750 mm (30 in) in the rain shadow along the coast in southeastern Devon and around Exeter. Sunshine amounts also vary widely: the moors are generally cloudy, but the SE coast from Salcombe to Exmouth is one of the sunniest parts of the UK (a generally cloudy region). With westerly or southwesterly winds and high pressure the area around Torbay and Teignmouth will often be warm, with long sunny spells due to shelter by high ground (Foehn wind).
|Climate data for Devon|
|Average high °C (°F)||8|
|Average low °C (°F)||4|
The variety of habitats means that there is a wide range of wildlife (see Dartmoor wildlife, for example). A popular challenge among birders is to find over 100 species in the county in a day. The county's wildlife is protected by several wildlife charities such as the Devon Wildlife Trust, which looks after 40 nature reserves. The Devon Bird Watching and Preservation Society (founded in 1928 and known since 2005 as "Devon Birds") is a county bird society dedicated to the study and conservation of wild birds. The RSPB has reserves in the county, and Natural England is responsible for over 200 Devon Sites of Special Scientific Interest and National Nature Reserves, such as Slapton Ley. The Devon Bat Group was founded in 1984 to help conserve bats. Wildlife found in this area extend to a plethora of different kinds of insects, butterflies and moths; an interesting butterfly to take look at is the Chequered skipper.
The botany of the county is very diverse and includes some rare species not found elsewhere in the British Isles other than Cornwall. Devon is divided into two Watsonian vice-counties: north and south, the boundary being an irregular line approximately across the higher part of Dartmoor and then along the canal eastwards. Botanical reports begin in the 17th century and there is a Flora Devoniensis by Jones and Kingston in 1829. A general account appeared in The Victoria History of the County of Devon (1906), and a Flora of Devon was published in 1939 by Keble Martin and Fraser. An Atlas of the Devon Flora by Ivimey-Cook appeared in 1984, and A New Flora of Devon, based on field work undertaken between 2005 and 2014, was published in 2016.
Rising temperatures have led to Devon becoming the first place in modern Britain to cultivate olives commercially.
Politics and administration
The administrative centre and capital of Devon is the city of Exeter. The largest city in Devon, Plymouth, and the conurbation of Torbay (which includes the largest town in Devon and capital of Torbay, Torquay, as well as Paignton and Brixham) have been unitary authorities since 1998, separate from the remainder of Devon which is administered by Devon County Council for the purposes of local government.
Devon County Council is controlled by the Conservatives, and the political representation of its 62 councillors are: 38 Conservatives, 9 Liberal Democrats, seven Labour, four UKIP, three Independents and one Green.
At the 2019 general election, Devon returned 10 Conservatives and two Labour MPs to the House of Commons.
Historically Devon was divided into 32 hundreds: Axminster, Bampton, Black Torrington, Braunton, Cliston, Coleridge, Colyton, Crediton, East Budleigh, Ermington, Exminster, Fremington, Halberton, Hartland, Hayridge, Haytor, Hemyock, Lifton, North Tawton and Winkleigh, Ottery, Plympton, Roborough, Shebbear, Shirwell, South Molton, Stanborough, Tavistock, Teignbridge, Tiverton, West Budleigh, Witheridge, and Wonford.
Cities, towns and villages
The main settlements in Devon are the cities of Plymouth, a historic port now administratively independent, Exeter, the county town, and Torbay, the county's tourist centre. Devon's coast is lined with tourist resorts, many of which grew rapidly with the arrival of the railways in the 19th century. Examples include Dawlish, Exmouth and Sidmouth on the south coast, and Ilfracombe and Lynmouth on the north. The Torbay conurbation of Torquay, Paignton and Brixham on the south coast is now administratively independent of the county. Rural market towns in the county include Barnstaple, Bideford, Honiton, Newton Abbot, Okehampton, Tavistock, Totnes and Tiverton.
The boundary with Cornwall has not always been on the River Tamar as at present: until the late 19th century a few parishes in the Torpoint area were in Devon and five parishes now in north-east Cornwall were in Devon until 1974. (However, for ecclesiastical purposes these were nevertheless in the Archdeaconry of Cornwall and in 1876 became part of the Diocese of Truro.)
Ancient and medieval history
The region of Devon was the dominion of the Dumnonii Celtic tribe they were also called "Deep Valley Dwellers". The region was less Romanised than the rest of Roman Britain since it was considered a remote province. The Romans left the region around AD 410, this is when one of the leading Dumnonii families attempted to create a dynasty and rule over Devon as the Kings of Dumnonii.
Celtic paganism and Roman practices were the first known religions in Devon, although in the mid-fourth century AD, Christianity was introduced to Devon. In the Sub-Roman period the church in the British Isles was characterised by some differences in practice from the Latin Christianity of the continent of Europe and is known as Celtic Christianity; however it was always in communion with the wider Roman Catholic Church. Many Cornish saints are commemorated also in Devon in legends, churches and place-names. Western Christianity came to Devon when it was over a long period incorporated into the kingdom of Wessex and the jurisdiction of the bishop of Wessex. Saint Petroc is said to have passed through Devon, where ancient dedications to him are even more numerous than in Cornwall: a probable seventeen (plus Timberscombe just over the border in Somerset), compared to Cornwall's five. The position of churches bearing his name, including one within the old Roman walls of Exeter, are nearly always near the coast, as in those days travelling was done mainly by sea. The Devonian villages of Petrockstowe and Newton St Petroc are also named after Saint Petroc and the flag of Devon is dedicated to him.
The history of Christianity in the South West of England remains to some degree obscure. Parts of the historic county of Devon formed part of the diocese of Wessex, while nothing is known of the church organisation of the Celtic areas. About 703 Devon and Cornwall were included in the separate diocese of Sherborne and in 900 this was again divided into two, the Devon bishop having from 905 his seat at Tawton (now Bishop's Tawton) and from 912 at Crediton, birthplace of St Boniface. Lyfing became Bishop of Crediton in 1027 and shortly afterwards became Bishop of Cornwall.
The two dioceses of Crediton and Cornwall, covering Devon and Cornwall, were permanently united under Edward the Confessor by Lyfing's successor Bishop Leofric, hitherto Bishop of Crediton, who became first Bishop of Exeter under Edward the Confessor, which was established as his cathedral city in 1050. At first, the abbey church of St Mary and St Peter, founded by Athelstan in 932 and rebuilt in 1019, served as the cathedral.
In 1549, the Prayer Book Rebellion caused the deaths of thousands of people from Devon and Cornwall. During the English Reformation, churches in Devon officially became affiliated with the Church of England. From the late sixteenth century onwards, zealous Protestantism – or 'puritanism' – became increasingly well-entrenched in some parts of Devon, while other districts of the county remained much more conservative. These divisions would become starkly apparent during the English Civil War of 1642–46, when the county split apart along religious and cultural lines. The Methodism of John Wesley proved to be very popular with the working classes in Devon in the 19th century. Methodist chapels became important social centres, with male voice choirs and other church-affiliated groups playing a central role in the social lives of working class Devonians. Methodism still plays a large part in the religious life of Devon today, although the county has shared in the post-World War II decline in British religious feeling.
The Diocese of Exeter remains the Anglican diocese including the whole of Devon. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Plymouth was established in the mid 19th century.
Coat of arms
There was no established coat of arms for the county until 1926: the arms of the City of Exeter were often used to represent Devon, for instance in the badge of the Devonshire Regiment. During the forming of a county council by the Local Government Act 1888 adoption of a common seal was required. The seal contained three shields depicting the arms of Exeter along with those of the first chairman and vice-chairman of the council (Lord Clinton and the Earl of Morley).
On 11 October 1926, the county council received a grant of arms from the College of Arms. The main part of the shield displays a red crowned lion on a silver field, the arms of Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall. The chief or upper portion of the shield depicts an ancient ship on wavers, for Devon's seafaring traditions. The Latin motto adopted was Auxilio Divino (by Divine aid), that of Sir Francis Drake. The 1926 grant was of arms alone. On 6 March 1962 a further grant of crest and supporters was obtained. The crest is the head of a Dartmoor Pony rising from a "Naval Crown". This distinctive form of crown is formed from the sails and sterns of ships, and is associated with the Royal Navy. The supporters are a Devon bull and a sea lion.
Devon County Council adopted a "ship silhouette" logo after the 1974 reorganisation, adapted from the ship emblem on the coat of arms, but following the loss in 1998 of Plymouth and Torbay re-adopted the coat of arms. In April 2006 the council unveiled a new logo which was to be used in most everyday applications, though the coat of arms will continue to be used for "various civic purposes".
Devon also has its own flag which has been dedicated to Saint Petroc, a local saint with dedications throughout Devon and neighbouring counties. The flag was adopted in 2003 after a competition run by BBC Radio Devon. The winning design was created by website contributor Ryan Sealey, and won 49% of the votes cast. The colours of the flag are those popularly identified with Devon, for example, the colours of Exeter University, the rugby union team, and the Green and White flag flown by the first Viscount Exmouth at the Bombardment of Algiers (now on view at the Teign Valley Museum), as well as one of the county's football teams, Plymouth Argyle. On 17 October 2006, the flag was hoisted for the first time outside County Hall in Exeter to mark Local Democracy Week, receiving official recognition from the county council. In 2019 Devon County Council with the support of both the Anglican and Catholic churches in Exeter and Plymouth, officially recognised Saint Boniface as the Patron Saint of Devon.
Place names and customs
Devon's toponyms include many with the endings "coombe/combe" and "tor". Both 'coombe' (valley or hollow, cf. Welsh cwm, Cornish komm) and 'tor' (Old Welsh twrr and Scots Gaelic tòrr from Latin turris; 'tower' used for granite formations) are rare Celtic loanwords in English and their frequency is greatest in Devon which shares a boundary with Brittonic speaking Cornwall. Ruined medieval settlements of Dartmoor longhouses indicate that dispersed rural settlement (OE tun, now often -ton) was very similar to that found in Cornish 'tre-' settlements, however these are generally described with the local placename -(a)cott, from the Old English for homestead, cf. cottage. Saxon endings in -worthy (from Anglo-Saxon worthig) indicate larger settlements. Several 'Bere's indicate Anglo-Saxon wood groves, as 'leighs' indicate clearings.
Devon has a variety of festivals and traditional practices, including the traditional orchard-visiting Wassail in Whimple every 17 January, and the carrying of flaming tar barrels in Ottery St. Mary, where people who have lived in Ottery for long enough are called upon to celebrate Bonfire Night by running through the village (and the gathered crowds) with flaming barrels on their backs. Berry Pomeroy still celebrates "Queen's Day" for Elizabeth I.
Devon has a mostly comprehensive education system. There are 37 state and 23 independent secondary schools. There are three tertiary (FE) colleges and an agricultural college (Bicton College, near Budleigh Salterton). Torbay has 8 state (with 3 grammar schools) and 3 independent secondary schools, and Plymouth has 17 state (with 3 grammar schools – two female and one male) and one independent school, Plymouth College. East Devon and Teignbridge have the largest school populations, with West Devon the smallest (with only two schools). Only one school in Exeter, Mid Devon, Torridge and North Devon have a sixth form – the schools in other districts mostly have sixth forms, with all schools in West Devon and East Devon having a sixth form.
Two universities are located in Devon, the University of Exeter (split between the Streatham Campus and St Luke's Campus, both in Exeter, and a campus in Cornwall); in Plymouth the University of Plymouth in Britain is present, along with the University of St Mark & St John to the city's north. The universities of Exeter and Plymouth have together formed the Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry which has bases in Exeter and Plymouth. There is also Schumacher College.
The county has given its name to a number of culinary specialities. The Devonshire cream tea, involving scones, jam and clotted cream, is thought to have originated in Devon (though claims have also been made for neighbouring counties); in other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, it is known as a "Devonshire tea". In Australia, Devon is a name for luncheon meat (processed ham). It has also been claimed that the pasty originated in Devon rather than Cornwall.
In October 2008, Devon was awarded Fairtrade County status by the Fairtrade Foundation.
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Devon has been home to a number of customs, such as its own form of Devon wrestling, similar in some ways to Cornish wrestling. As recently as the 19th century, a crowd of 17,000 at Devonport, near Plymouth, attended a match between the champions of Devon and Cornwall. Another Devon sport was outhurling which was played in some regions until the 20th century (e.g. 1922, at Great Torrington). Other ancient customs which survive include Dartmoor step dancing, and "Crying The Neck".
Devon has three professional football teams, based in each of its most populous towns and cities. As of the 2018–2019 football season, both Plymouth Argyle F.C. and Exeter City F.C. compete in English Football League Two (the fourth tier), whilst Torquay United F.C. compete in the National League (the fifth tier). Plymouth's highest Football League finish was fourth in the Second Division, which was achieved twice, in 1932 and 1953. Torquay and Exeter have never progressed beyond the third tier of the league; Torquay finished second on goal average in the Third Division (S) behind Sir Alf Ramsey's Ipswich Town in 1957. Exeter's highest position has been eighth in the Third Division (S). The county's biggest non-league clubs are Bideford F.C. which competes in the Southern Football League Premier Division, and Tiverton Town F.C. which is in the Southern Football League Division One South and West.
Rugby Union is popular in Devon with over forty clubs under the banner of the Devon Rugby Football Union, many with various teams at senior, youth and junior levels. One club – Exeter Chiefs play in the Aviva Premiership, winning the title in 2017 for the first time in their history after beating Wasps RFC in the final 23–20. Plymouth Albion who are, as of 2017[update], in the National League 1 (The 3rd tier of English Professional Rugby Union.
There are five rugby league teams in Devon. Plymouth Titans, Exeter Centurions, Devon Sharks from Torquay, North Devon Raiders from Barnstaple and East Devon Eagles from Exmouth. They all play in the Rugby League Conference.
In basketball, Plymouth Raiders play in the British Basketball League. Tamar Valley Cannons, also based in Plymouth, are Devon's only other representatives in the National Leagues. Motorcycle speedway is also supported in the county, with both the Exeter Falcons and Plymouth Devils succeeding in the National Leagues in recent years.
The University of Exeter Hockey Club enter teams in both the Men's and Women's England Hockey Leagues.
Horse Racing is also popular in the county, with two National Hunt racecourses (Exeter and Newton Abbot), and numerous point to point courses. There are also many successful professional racehorse trainers based in Devon.
The county is represented in cricket by Devon County Cricket Club, who play at a Minor counties level.
Devon is known for its mariners, such as Sir Francis Drake, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Richard Grenville, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir Francis Chichester. Henry Every, described as the most notorious pirate of the late 17th century, was probably born in the village of Newton Ferrers. John Oxenham (1536–1580) was a lieutenant of Drake but considered a pirate by the Spanish. Thomas Morton (1576–1647) was an avid Elizabethan outdoorsman probably born in Devon who became an attorney for The Council For New England, and built the New England fur-trading-plantation called Ma-Re Mount or Merrymount around a West Country-style Maypole, much to the displeasure of Pilgrim and Puritan colonists. Morton wrote a 1637 book New English Canaan about his experiences, partly in verse, and may have thereby become America's first poet to write in English. Another famous mariner and Devonian was Robert Falcon Scott, the leader of the unfortunate Terra Nova Expedition to reach the geographical South Pole. The poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the crime writer Agatha Christie, the Irish writer William Trevor, and the poet Ted Hughes lived in Devon. The painter and founder of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds, was born in Devon. Chris Dawson, the billionaire owner of retailer The Range was born in Devon, where his business retains its head office in Plymouth.
The actor Matthew Goode was raised in Devon, and Bradley James, also an actor, was born there. The singer Joss Stone was brought up in Devon and frontman Chris Martin from the British rock group Coldplay was born there. Matt Bellamy, Dominic Howard and Chris Wolstenholme from the English group Muse all grew up in Devon and formed the band there. Dave Hill of rock band Slade was born in Flete House which is in the South Hams district of Devon. Singer-songwriter Ben Howard grew up in Totnes, a small town in Devon. Another famous Devonian is the model and actress Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, who was born in Plymouth and raised in Tavistock. The singer and songwriter Rebecca Newman was born and raised in Exmouth. Roger Deakins, called "the pre-eminent cinematographer of our time", was born and lives in Devon.
Trevor Francis, former Nottingham Forest and Birmingham City professional footballer, and the first English footballer to cost £1 million, was born and brought up in Plymouth.
Swimmer Sharron Davies and diver Tom Daley were born in Plymouth. The Olympic runner Jo Pavey was born in Honiton. Peter Cook the satirist, writer and comedian was born in Torquay, Devon. Leicester Tigers and British and Irish Lions Rugby player Julian White was born and raised in Devon and now farms a herd of pedigree South Devon beef cattle. The dog breeder John "Jack" Russell was also from Devon. Jane McGrath, who married Australian cricketer Glenn McGrath was born in Paignton, her long battle with and subsequent death from breast cancer inspired the formation of the McGrath Foundation, which is one of Australia's leading charities.
Devon has also been represented in the House of Commons by notable MPs such as Nancy Astor, Gwyneth Dunwoody, Michael Foot and David Owen.
Tamar Valley AONB
- List of Lord Lieutenants of Devon
- List of High Sheriffs of Devon
- Healthcare in Devon
- Custos Rotulorum of Devon – Keepers of the Rolls
- List of MPs for Devon constituency
- Category:Rivers of Devon
- List of hills of Devon
- List of monastic houses in Devon
- List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Devon
- North Devon Coast
- West Country English
- Circular linhay
- Devon Sinfonia
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|Wikisource has the text of the Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.) article Devonshire.|
- Devon County Council
- BBC Devon
- Genuki Devon Historical, geographical and genealogical information
- The Devonshire Association, a Devon-centric equivalent of the British Association
- Devon at Curlie
- Images of Devon at the English Heritage Archive