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|Región||Asia del Sur|
|Hablantes nativos||~ 260.000 (2011)    Altavoces |
L2 : ~ 83 millones de altavoces
L3 : ~ 46 millones
|Familia de idiomas|
|Sistema de escritura||latín|
|Idioma oficial en||India|
|Códigos de idioma|
|Parte de una serie sobre el|
|idioma en Inglés|
Categoría superior: Idioma
El inglés indio (IE) es una clase de variedades del idioma inglés que se habla en la India y entre la diáspora india en otras partes del mundo.  El gobierno indio utiliza el inglés para algunas comunicaciones como complemento del hindi , el "idioma oficial de la Unión" del país, consagrado en la Constitución .  El inglés es un idioma oficial de 7 estados y 5 Territorios de la Unión y también un idioma oficial adicional de 7 estados y 1 Territorio de la Unión. El inglés también es el único idioma oficial del poder judicial de la India., a menos que un gobernador estatal o una legislatura exijan el uso de idiomas regionales, o el presidente haya dado su aprobación para el uso de idiomas regionales en los tribunales. 
Estado [ editar ]
Después de la independencia del Reino Unido en 1947, el inglés siguió siendo un idioma oficial del nuevo Dominio de la India y más tarde de la República de la India . Solo unos pocos cientos de miles de indios, o menos del 0,1% de la población total, hablaban inglés como su primer idioma.    
Según el censo de 2001 , el 12,18% de los indios sabían inglés. De esos aproximadamente 200 mil informaron el inglés como su primer idioma, 86 millones como el segundo y otros 39 millones como el tercero. 
Según la Encuesta de Desarrollo Humano de la India de 2005 ,  de los 41.554 encuestados, los hogares informaron que el 72% de los hombres (29.918) no hablaba nada de inglés, el 28% (11.635) hablaba al menos algo de inglés y el 5% (2.077, aproximadamente el 17,9% de los que hablaban al menos algo de inglés) hablaban inglés con fluidez. Entre las mujeres, los porcentajes correspondientes fueron 83% (34,489) que no hablaban inglés, 17% (7,064) que hablaban al menos algo de inglés y 3% (1,246, aproximadamente el 17,6% de las que hablaban al menos algo de inglés) que hablaban inglés con fluidez.  Según las estadísticas del Sistema de Información Distrital para la Educación (DISE) de la Universidad Nacional de Planificación y Administración de la Educación dependiente del Ministerio de Desarrollo de Recursos Humanos ,Gobierno de la India , la matriculación en escuelas de nivel medio en inglés aumentó en un 50% entre 2008-09 y 2013-14. El número de estudiantes de enseñanza media en inglés en la India aumentó de más de 15 millones en 2008-09 a 29 millones en 2013-14. 
Según el censo de 2011 , 129 millones (10,6%) de indios hablaban inglés. 259,678 (0.02%) indios hablaban inglés como su primer idioma.  Concluyó que aproximadamente 83 millones de indios (6,8%) informaron el inglés como su segundo idioma y 46 millones (3,8%) lo informaron como su tercer idioma, lo que convierte al inglés en el segundo idioma más hablado en la India. 
India ocupa el puesto 22 de 72 países en el Índice de dominio del inglés EF 2016 publicado por EF Education First . El índice le da al país una puntuación de 57,30 que indica "competencia moderada". India ocupa el cuarto lugar entre los 19 países asiáticos incluidos en el índice.  Entre los países asiáticos, Singapur (63,52), Malasia (60,70) y Filipinas (60,33) recibieron puntuaciones más altas que la India.
El periodista Manu Joseph , en un artículo de 2011 en The New York Times , escribió que debido a la prominencia y el uso del idioma y al deseo de una educación en inglés, "el inglés es el idioma nacional de facto de la India. Es una amarga verdad . "  En su libro, 'In Search of Indian English: History, Politics and Indigenization', Ranjan Kumar Auddy muestra que la historia del surgimiento del nacionalismo indio y la historia del surgimiento del inglés indio están profundamente interrelacionadas.
Idioma de la corte [ editar ]
El inglés, según la Constitución de la India, es el idioma del Tribunal Supremo y de todos los Tribunales Superiores de la India.  Sin embargo, en Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh y Rajasthani, el hindi también se usa en los tribunales debido a la aprobación presidencial.  En 2018, los tribunales superiores de Punjab y Haryana también esperan la aprobación presidencial para su uso en hindi. 
Nombres [ editar ]
La primera aparición del término inglés indio data de 1696,  aunque el término no se volvió común hasta el siglo XIX. En la era colonial, los términos más comunes en uso eran angloindio inglés , o simplemente angloindio , ambos que datan de 1860. Otros términos menos comunes en uso eran indo-anglo (que data de 1897) e indo-inglés (1912).  Un artículo del inglés angloindio se conoció como angloindianismo a partir de 1851. 
En la era moderna, se ha utilizado una variedad de palabras coloquiales para el inglés indio. El primero de estos es Indlish (grabado de 1962), y otros incluyen Indiglish (1974), Indenglish (1979), Indglish (1984), Indish (1984), Inglish (1985) y Indianlish (2007). 
Funciones [ editar ]
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Indian English generally uses the Indian numbering system. Idiomatic forms derived from Indian literary languages and vernaculars have been absorbed into Indian English. Nevertheless, there remains general homogeneity in phonetics, vocabulary, and phraseology between various dialects of Indian English.
Formal written publications in English in India tend to use lakh/crore for Indian currency and Western numbering for foreign currencies.
As in the case for other countries in South Asia, Indian English tends to omit definite and indefinite articles, due to influence from Hindi.
In the West, Indian accents are widely considered humourous, and are often imitated for comedic effect.
The English language set foot in India with the granting of the East India Company charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1600 and the subsequent establishment of trading ports in coastal cities such as Surat, Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.
English language public instruction began in India in the 1830s during the rule of the East India Company (India was then, and is today, one of the most linguistically diverse regions of the world). In 1835, English replaced Persian as the official language of the Company. Lord Macaulay played a major role in introducing English and western concepts to education in India. He supported the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction in all schools, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. Throughout the 1840s and 1850s, primary, middle, and high-schools were opened in many districts of British India, with most high-schools offering English language instruction in some subjects. In 1857, just before the end of Company rule, universities modeled on the University of London and using English as the medium of instruction were established in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. During the British Raj, lasting from 1858 to 1947, English language penetration increased throughout India. This was driven in part by the gradually increasing hiring of Indians in the civil services. At the time of India's independence in 1947, English was the only functional lingua franca in the country.
After Indian Independence in 1947, Hindi was declared the first official language, and attempts were made to declare Hindi the sole national language of India. Due to protests from Tamil Nadu and other non-Hindi-speaking states, it was decided to temporarily retain English for official purposes until at least 1965. By the end of this period, however, opposition from non-Hindi states was still too strong to have Hindi declared the sole language. With this in mind, the English Language Amendment Bill declared English to be an associate language "until such time as all non-Hindi States had agreed to its being dropped." This has not yet occurred, and it is still widely used. For instance, it is the only reliable means of day-to-day communication between the central government and the non-Hindi states.
The view of the English language among many Indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and English continues to be an official language of India.
While there is an assumption that English is readily available in India, studies show that its usage is actually restricted to the elite, because of inadequate education to large parts of the Indian population. The use of outdated teaching methods and the poor grasp of English exhibited by the authors of many guidebooks disadvantage students who rely on these books, giving India only a moderate proficiency in English.
In addition, many features of Indian English were imported into Bhutan due to the dominance of Indian-style education and teachers in the country after it withdrew from its isolation in the 1960s.
Hinglish and other hybrid languages
The term Hinglish is a portmanteau of the languages English and Hindi. This typically refers to the macaronic hybrid use of Hindi and English. It is often the growing preferred language of the urban and semi-urban educated Indian youth, as well as the Indian diaspora abroad. The Hindi film industry, more popularly known as Bollywood, incorporates considerable amounts of Hinglish as well. Many internet platforms and voice commands on Google also recognise Hinglish.
Other macaronic hybrids such as Manglish (Malayalam and English), Kanglish (Kannada and English), Tenglish (Telugu and English), and Tanglish or Tamglish (Tamil and English) exist in South India.
An example of a North Indian woman with an Indian accent (Vandana Shiva)
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In general, Indian English has fewer peculiarities in its vowel sounds than the consonants, especially as spoken by native speakers of languages like Hindi, the vowel phoneme system having some similarities with that of English. Among the distinctive features of the vowel-sounds employed by some Indian English speakers:
- Modern Indians, especially a minority of English students and teachers along with some people in various professions like telephone customer service agents, often speak with a non-rhotic accent. Examples of this include flower pronounced as /flaʊ.ə/, never as /nevə/, water as /wɔːtə/, etc. Some south Indians, however, like native Telugu speakers speak with a rhotic accent, but the /ə/ becomes an /a/, and an alveolar tap [ɾ] is used for /r/, resulting in water and never as /wɔːtar/ and /nevar/ respectively.
- Features characteristic of North American English, such as rhoticity and r-coloured vowels, have been gaining influence on Indian English in recent years as cultural and economic ties increase between India and the United States.
- Many North Indians have a sing-song pattern similar to Hiberno-English, which perhaps results from a similar pattern used while speaking Hindi.
- Indian English speakers do not make a clear distinction between /ɒ/ and /ɔː/ unlike Received Pronunciation (RP), i.e. they have the cot-caught merger
- Diphthong /eɪ/ is pronounced as /eː/
- Diphthong /əʊ/ is pronounced as /oː/
- Diphthong /eǝ/ is pronounced as /ɛː/
- /ɑː/ may be more front /a/ or central /ä/
- /ʌ/ can be more mid central /ə/ or open-mid /ɜ/
- Most Indians have the trap–bath split of Received Pronunciation, affecting words such as class, staff and last (/klɑːs/, /stɑːf/ and /lɑːst/ respectively). Though the trap-bath split is prevalent in Indian English, it varies greatly. Many younger Indians who read and listen to American English do not have this split. The distribution is somewhat similar to Australian English in Regional Indian English varieties, but it has a complete split in Cultivated Indian English and Standard Indian English varieties.
- Most Indians do not have the hoarse-horse merger.
The following are some variations in Indian English resulting from not distinguishing a few vowels:
- Pronunciation of /ɔ/ as /o/
- Pronunciation of /æ/ and /ɛ/ as /e/
- Pronunciation of /ɔ/ and /ɒ/ as /a/
The following are the characteristics of dialect of Indian English most similar to RP:
- The voiceless plosives /p/, /t/, /k/ are always unaspirated in Indian English, (aspirated in cultivated form) whereas in RP, General American and most other English accents they are aspirated in word-initial or stressed syllables. Thus "pin" is pronounced [pɪn] in Indian English but [pʰɪn] in most other dialects. In native Indian languages (except in Dravidian languages such as Tamil), the distinction between aspirated and unaspirated plosives is phonemic, and the English stops are equated with the unaspirated rather than the aspirated phonemes of the local languages. The same is true of the voiceless postalveolar affricate /tʃ/.
- The alveolar stops English /d/, /t/ are often retroflex [ɖ], [ʈ], especially in the South of India. In Indian languages there are two entirely distinct sets of coronal plosives: one dental and the other retroflex. Native speakers of Indian languages prefer to pronounce the English alveolar plosives sound as more retroflex than dental, and the use of retroflex consonants is a common feature of Indian English. In the Devanagari script of Hindi, all alveolar plosives of English are transcribed as their retroflex counterparts. One good reason for this is that unlike most other native Indian languages, Hindi does not have true retroflex plosives (Tiwari,  2001). The so-called retroflexes in Hindi are actually articulated as apical post-alveolar plosives, sometimes even with a tendency to come down to the alveolar region. So a Hindi speaker normally cannot distinguish the difference between their own apical post-alveolar plosives and English's alveolar plosives. Languages such as Tamil have true retroflex plosives, however, wherein the articulation is done with the tongue curved upwards and backwards at the roof of the mouth. This also causes (in parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) the /s/ preceding alveolar /t/ to allophonically change to [ʃ] (⟨stop⟩ /stɒp/ → /ʃʈap/). Mostly in south India, some speakers allophonically further change the voiced retroflex plosives to voiced retroflex flap [ɽ], and the nasal /n/ to a nasalised retroflex flap.
- Most major native languages of India lack the dental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ (spelled with th), although [ð] occurs variably in languages like Gujarati and Tamil. Usually, the aspirated voiceless dental plosive [t̪ʰ] is substituted for /θ/ in the north (it would be unaspirated in the south) and the unaspirated voiced dental plosive [d̪], or possibly the aspirated version [d̪ʱ], is substituted for /ð/. For example, "thin" would be realised as [t̪ʰɪn] instead of /θɪn/ for North Indian speakers, whereas it would be pronounced unaspirated in the south.
The following are the variations in Indian English:
- The rhotic consonant /r/ is pronounced by most speakers as an alveolar tap [ɾ], but may also be pronounced as a retroflex flap [ɽ] or alveolar trill [r] based on the influence by the native phonology, or an alveolar approximant [ɹ] like in most varieties of English.
- Pronunciations vary between rhotic and non-rhotic; with pronunciations leaning towards native phonology being generally rhotic, and others being non-rhotic.
- In recent years, rhoticity has been increasing. Generally, American English is seen as having a large influence on the English language in India recently.
- Many Indians with rhotic accents prefer to pronounce words with [aʊə] as [aː(r)], such as ⟨flower⟩ as [flaː(r)] and ⟨our⟩ as [aː(r)], as opposed to [flaʊ.ə] and [aʊ.ə] in more non-rhotic varieties. Speakers with rhotic accents, especially some south Indians, may also pronounce word-final /ər/ as /ar/, resulting in water and never as /wɔːtar/ and /nevar/ respectively.
- Most Indian languages (except Assamese, Bengali, Marathi and Punjabi) including Standard Hindi, do not differentiate between /v/ (voiced labiodental fricative) and /w/ (voiced labiovelar approximant). Instead, many Indians use a frictionless labiodental approximant [ʋ] for words with either sound, possibly in free variation with [v] and/or [w] depending upon region. Thus, wet and vet are often homophones.
- South Indians tend to curl the tongue (retroflex accentuation) more for /l/ and /n/.
- Sometimes, Indian speakers interchange /s/ and /z/, especially when plurals are being formed, unlike speakers of other varieties of English, who use [s] for the pluralisation of words ending in a voiceless consonant, [z] for words ending in a voiced consonant or vowel, and [ɨz] for words ending in a sibilant.
- In case of the postalveolar affricates /tʃ/ /dʒ/, native languages like Hindi have corresponding affricates articulated from the palatal region, rather than postalveolar, and they have more of a stop component than fricative; this is reflected in their English.
- Whilst retaining /ŋ/ in the final position, many Indian speakers add the [ɡ] sound after it when it occurs in the middle of a word. Hence /ˈriŋiŋ/ → /ˈriŋɡiŋ/ (ringing).
- Syllabic /l/, /m/ and /n/ are usually replaced by the VC clusters [əl], [əm] and [ən] (as in button /ˈbəʈʈən/), or if a high vowel precedes, by [il] (as in little /ˈliʈʈil/). Syllable nuclei in words with the spelling er/re (a schwa in RP and an r-coloured schwa in GA) are also replaced by VC clusters. e.g., metre, /ˈmiːtər/ → /ˈmiːʈər/.
- Indian English uses clear [l] in all instances like Irish English whereas other varieties use clear [l] in syllable-initial positions and dark l [ɫ] (velarised-L) in coda and syllabic positions.
The following are the variations in Indian English that are often discouraged:[by whom?]
- Most Indian languages (except Hindustani varieties and Assamese) lack the voiced alveolar fricative /z/. A significant portion of Indians thus, even though their native languages do have its nearest equivalent: the unvoiced /s/, often use the voiced palatal affricate (or postalveolar) /dʒ/, just as with a Korean accent. This makes words such as ⟨zero⟩ and ⟨rosy⟩ sound as [ˈdʒiːro] and [ˈroːdʒiː] (the latter, especially in the North). This replacement is equally true for Persian and Arabic loanwords into Hindi. The probable reason is the confusion created by the use of the Devanagari grapheme ⟨ज⟩ (for /dʒ/) with a dot beneath it to represent /z/ (as ⟨ज़⟩). This is common among people without formal English education. In Telugu, /z/ and /dʒ/ are allophones, so words such as rosy /ˈɹəʊzi/ become /'roːdʒi/ and words such as fridge /fɹɪdʒ/ become /friz/. The same happens in Bengali as well.
- In Assamese, /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ are pronounced as /s/; and /dʒ/ and /ʒ/ are pronounced as /z/. Retroflex and dental consonants are not present and only alveolar consonants are used unlike other Indian languages. Similar to Bengali, /v/ is pronounced as /bʱ/ and /β/ in Assamese. For example; change is pronounced as [sɛɪnz], vote is pronounced as [bʱʊt] and English is pronounced as [iŋlis].
- Again, in Assamese and Bhojpuri, all instances of /ʃ/ are spoken like [s], a phenomenon that is also apparent in their English. Exactly the opposite is seen for many Bengalis.
- Inability to pronounce certain (especially word-initial) consonant clusters by people of rural backgrounds, as with some Spanish-speakers. This is usually dealt with by epenthesis. e.g., ⟨school⟩ /isˈkuːl/.
- Many Indians with lower exposure to English also may pronounce /f/ as an aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive [pʰ]. Again note that in Hindi Devanagari the loaned /f/ from Persian and Arabic is written by putting a dot beneath the grapheme for native [pʰ] ⟨फ⟩: ⟨फ़⟩. This substitution is rarer than that for [z], and in fact in many Hindi /f/ is used by native speakers instead of /pʰ/, or the two are used interchangeably.
- Many speakers of Indian English do not use the voiced postalveolar fricative (/ʒ/). Some Indians use /z/ or /dʒ/ instead, e.g. ⟨treasure⟩ /ˈtrɛzəːr/, and in the south Indian variants, with /ʃ/ as in ⟨shore⟩, e.g. ⟨treasure⟩ /ˈtrɛʃər/.
A number of distinctive features of Indian English are due to "the vagaries of English spelling". Most Indian languages, unlike English, have a nearly phonetic spelling, so the spelling of a word is a highly reliable guide to its modern pronunciation. Indians' tendency to pronounce English phonetically as well can cause divergence from British English. This phenomenon is known as spelling pronunciation.
- In words where the digraph ⟨gh⟩ represents a voiced velar plosive (/ɡ/) in other accents, some Indian English speakers supply a murmured version [ɡʱ], for example ⟨ghost⟩ [ɡʱoːst]. No other accent of English admits this voiced aspiration.
- Similarly, the digraph ⟨wh⟩ may be aspirated as [ʋʱ] or [wʱ], resulting in realisations such as ⟨which⟩ [ʋʱɪtʃ], found in no other English accent. This is somewhat similar to the traditional distinction between ⟨wh⟩ and ⟨w⟩ present in English, however, wherein the former is /ʍ/, whilst the latter is /w/.
- In unstressed syllables, which speakers of American English would realise as a schwa, speakers of Indian English would use the spelling vowel, making ⟨sanity⟩ sound as [ˈsæniti] instead of [ˈsænəti]. This trait is also present in other South Asian dialects (Pakistani and Sri Lankan English).
- The word "of" is usually pronounced with a /f/ instead of a /v/ as in most other accents.
- Use of [d] instead of [t] for the "-ed" ending of the past tense after voiceless consonants, for example "developed" may be [ˈdɛʋləpd] instead of RP /dɪˈvɛləpt/.
- Use of [s] instead of [z] for the ⟨-s⟩ ending of the plural after voiced consonants, for example ⟨dogs⟩ may be [daɡs] instead of [dɒɡz].
- Pronunciation of ⟨house⟩ as [haʊz] in both the noun and the verb, instead of [haʊs] as a noun and [haʊz] as a verb.
- Silent letters may be pronounced. For example, 'salmon' is usually pronounced with a distinct /l/.
English is a stress-timed language. Both syllable stress and word stress (where only certain words in a sentence or phrase are stressed) are important features of Received Pronunciation. Indian native languages are actually syllable-timed languages, like French. Indian-English speakers usually speak with a syllabic rhythm. Further, in some Indian languages, stress is associated with a low pitch, whereas in most English dialects, stressed syllables are generally pronounced with a higher pitch. Thus, when some Indian speakers speak, they appear to put the stress accents at the wrong syllables, or accentuate all the syllables of a long English word. Certain Indian accents possess a "sing-song" quality, a feature seen in a few English dialects of Britain, such as Scouse and Welsh English.
The Indian numbering system is preferred for digit grouping. When written in words, or when spoken, numbers less than 100,000/100 000 are expressed just as they are in Standard English. Numbers including and beyond 100,000/100 000 are expressed in a subset of the Indian numbering system. Thus, the following scale is used:
|In digits (International system)||In digits (Indian system)||In words (short scales)||In words (Indian system)|
|100,000||1,00,000||one hundred thousand||one lakh (from lākh लाख)|
|1,000,000||10,00,000||one million||ten lakh (from lākh लाख)|
|10,000,000||1,00,00,000||ten million||one crore (from karoṛ करोड़)|
|100,000,000||10,00,00,000||hundred million||ten crore|
|1,000,000,000||1,00,00,00,000||one billion||one hundred crore|
|10,000,000,000||10,00,00,00,000||ten billion||one thousand crore|
|100,000,000,000||1,00,00,00,00,000||hundred billion||ten thousand crore|
(Arab, kharab are not commonly used in modern contexts)
Larger numbers are generally expressed as multiples of the above (for example, one lakh crores for one trillion).
Indian English includes many political, sociological, and administrative terms, such as dharna, hartal, eve-teasing, vote bank, swaraj, swadeshi, scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, and NRI. It incorporates some Anglo-Indian words such as tiffin, hill station, gymkhana, along with slang.
Some examples of words and phrases unique to, or chiefly used in, standard written Indian English include:
- academics (noun) (also Canadian and U.S. English): Academic pursuits in contrast to technical or practical work.
- e.g. "For 14 years he immersed himself in academics and was a fine achiever." (Hindu (Madras), 6 Dec 1991 27/2)
- brinjal (noun): eggplant/aubergine
- cinema hall (noun): A cinema or movie theatre.
- e.g. "Cinema halls in Uttar Pradesh will soon display the newly-unveiled logo for Kumbh Mela, right after the national anthem is played" (Times of India, 3 Jan 2018)
- do the needful: To do that which is necessary or required, with the respectful implication that the other party is trusted to understand what needs doing without being given detailed instructions.
- e.g. "When asked if the UP government could reduce Value Added Tax (VAT) on petro-products to bring down prices, the CM said that the state government was aware of the situation and will do the needful." (2018 The Pioneer)
- English-knowing (adjective): Of a person or group of people that uses or speaks English.
- e.g. "The official and Service atmosphere... set the tone for almost all Indian middle-class life, especially the English-knowing intelligentsia." (Toward Freedom vii. 40, J. Nehru, 1941)
- freeship (noun): A studentship or scholarship.
- e.g. "Two permanent freeships, each tenable for one year and one of which is for the second and the other for the third year class." (Med. Reporter (Calcutta) 57/1, 1 Feb 1893)
- e.g. "Private institutions can only develop if they are allowed to charge reasonable fees, while also providing need based freeships and scholarships for a certain percentage of students." (Economic Times (India) (Nexis), 12 Oct 2006)
- hotel (noun): A restaurant or café.
- e.g. "A group of four friends had gone to have dinner at a roadside hotel." (Statesman (Calcutta), 10 Feb 1999, (Midweek section) 4/3)
- lady finger/lady's finger (noun): okra
- matrimonial (noun): Advertisements in a newspaper for the purpose of finding a marriageable partner.
- e.g. "When I have a job I'll have to begin a whole new search for my better half... Back to the newspaper matrimonials on Sundays." (Statesman (Calcutta), 10 Feb 1999, (Midweek section) 4/3)
- petrol pump/station (noun): gas station
- press person (noun, frequently as a single word): A newspaper journalist, a reporter, a member of the press.
- e.g. "The Prime Minister greeted the presspersons with a 'namaskar' [customary Hindu greeting] and a broad smile." (Hindu (Nexis), 20 June 2001)
- redressal (noun): redress
- e.g. "There is an urgent need for setting up an independent authority for redressal of telecom consumer complaints." (Statesman (India) (Nexis), 2 Apr 1998)
- e.g. "Where does he go for the redressal of his genuine grievances?" (Sunday Times of India, 15 Sep 2002 8/4)
- upgradation (noun) The enhancement or upgrading of status, value or level of something.
- e.g. "Our Company lays great stress on technical training and knowledge upgradation." (Business India, 8 Sep 1986 153/1 (advert))
- revert (verb): To report back with information.
- e.g. "Please revert with the required documentation."
- chain-snatching (verb): To snatch gold-chain from a woman (or a man) and run away, usually perpetrated by 2 or more criminals on a motorbike/moped.
- e.g. "Women, (as well as men), are avoiding wearing gold-chains due to the concerning rise in number of chain-snatching cases in many parts of the city."
- prepone (verb): To bring (something) forward to an earlier date or time.
- e.g. "The meeting has been preponed due to a change in the schedule."
The most famous dictionary of Indian English is Yule and Brunell's Hobson-Jobson, originally published in 1886 with an expanded edition edited by William Crooke in 1903, widely available in reprint since the 1960s.
Numerous other dictionaries ostensibly covering Indian English, though for the most part being merely collections of administratively-useful words from local languages, include (chronologically): Rousseau A Dictionary of Words used in the East Indies (1804), Wilkins Glossary to the Fifth Report (1813), Stocqueler The Oriental Interpreter and Treasury of East Indian Knowledge (1844), Elliot A Supplement to the Glossary of Indian Terms: A-J (1845), Brown The Zillah Dictionary in the Roman Character (1852), Carnegy Kutcherry Technicalities (1853) and its second edition Kachahri Technicalities (1877), Wilson Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms (1855), Giles A Glossary of Reference, on Subjects connected with the Far East (1878), Whitworth Anglo-Indian Dictionary (1885), Temple A Glossary of Indian Terms relating to Religion, Customs, Government, Land (1897), and Crooke Things India: Being Discursive Notes on Various Subjects connected with India (1906).
The first dictionary of Indian English to be published after independence was Hawkins Common Indian Words in English (1984). Other efforts include (chronologically): Lewis Sahibs, Nabobs and Boxwallahs (1991), Muthiah Words in Indian English (1991), Sengupta's Indian English supplement to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (1996) and Hankin Hanklyn-Janklin (2003). Nihalani et al. Indian and British English: A Handbook of Usage and Pronunciation (2004) delineates how Indian English differs from British English for a large number of specific lexical items. The Macmillan publishing company also produced a range of synchronic general dictionaries for the Indian market, such as the Macmillan Comprehensive Dictionary (2006).
The most recent and comprehensive dictionary is Carls A Dictionary of Indian English, with a Supplement on Word-formation Patterns (2017).
- Regional differences and dialects in Indian English
- Indian English literature
- Indian numbering system
- Languages with official status in India
- Indian States by most popular languages
- Pakistani English
- Bangladeshi English
- English as a lingua franca
- Regional accents of English
- Henry Yule; Arthur Coke Burnell (1886). HOBSON-JOBSON: Being a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases. John Murray, London.
- Auddy, Ranjan Kumar (2020). In Search of Indian English: History, Politics and Indigenisation.London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-367-35271-4 & ISBN 978-0-367-51008-4
- Wells, J C (1982). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28541-0.
- Crystal, David (1990). The English Language. London & New York: Penguin. p. 10.
- Whitworth, George Clifford (1885). An Anglo-Indian dictionary: a glossary of Indian terms used in English, and of such English or other non-Indian terms as have obtained special meanings in India. K. Paul, Trench.
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- Aula, Sahith (6 November 2014). "The Problem With The English Language In India". Forbes. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- Indian English, English To Bengali (2019), Spoken English Learning
- Balasubramanian, Chandrika (2009), Register Variation in Indian English, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 978-90-272-2311-1
- Ball, Martin J.; Muller, Nicole (2014), Phonetics for Communication Disorders, Routledge, pp. 289–, ISBN 978-1-317-77795-3
- Baumgardner, Robert Jackson (editor) (1996), South Asian English: Structure, Use, and Users, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 978-0-252-06493-7CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Braj B. Kachru (1983). The Indianisation of English: the English language in India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561353-8.
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- Hickey, Raymond (2004), "South Asian English", Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects, Cambridge University Press, pp. 536–, ISBN 978-0-521-83020-1
- Lambert, James (2012), "Beyond Hobson-Jobson: Towards a new lexicography for Indian English", English World-Wide, 33 (3): 292–320, doi:10.1075/eww.33.3.03lam
- Lambert, James (2018), "Setting the record straight: An in-depth examination of Hobson-Jobson", International Journal of Lexicography, 31 (4): 485–506, doi:10.1093/ijl/ecy010
- Lange, Claudia (2012), The Syntax of Spoken Indian English, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 978-90-272-4905-0
- Mehrotra, Raja Ram (1998), Indian English: Texts and Interpretation, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 90-272-4716-1
- Sailaja, Pingali (2007), "Writing Systems and Phonological Awareness", in Bayer, Josef; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Babu, M. T. Hany (eds.), Linguistic Theory and South Asian Languages: Essays in honour of K. A. Jayaseelan, John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 249–267, ISBN 978-90-272-9245-2
- Sailaja, Pingali (2009), Indian English, Series: Dialects of English, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2595-6
- Schilk, Marco (2011), Structural Nativization in Indian English Lexicogrammar, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 978-90-272-0351-9
- Sedlatschek, Andreas (2009), Contemporary Indian English: Variation and Change, Series: Varieties of English Around the World, ISBN 978-9027248985
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Wikipedia's India estimate of 350 million includes two categories – 'English Speakers' and 'English Users'. The distinction between the Speakers and Users is that Users only know how to read English words while Speakers know how to read English, understand spoken English as well as form their own sentences to converse in English. The distinction becomes clear when you consider China's numbers. China has over 200 million that can read English words but, as anyone can see on the streets of China, only a few million are English speakers.
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- ^ Lambert, James. 2018. A multitude of ‘lishes’: The nomenclature of hybridity. English World-wide, 39(1): 26. ‹See Tfd›doi: 10.1075/eww.38.3.04lam
- ^ Mukesh Ranjan Verma and Krishna Autar Agrawal: Reflections on Indian English literature (2002), page 163: "Some of the words in American English have spelling pronunciation and also pronunciation spelling. These are also characteristic features of Indian English as well. The novels of Mulk Raj Anand, in particular, are full of examples of ..."
- ^ Pingali Sailaja: Indian English (2009), page 116: "So what was Cauvery is now Kaveri. Some residual spellings left by the British do exist such as the use of ee for /i:/ as in Mukherjee. Also, some place names such as Cuddapah and Punjab"
- ^ Edward Carney: Survey of English Spelling (2012), page 56: "Not all distributional differences, however, have important consequences for spelling. For instance, the ... Naturally enough, Indian English is heavily influenced by the native language of the area in which it is spoken."
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- ^ Ball & Muller 2014: The comments on retroflex consonants also apply to southern Indian languages such as Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam. and Kannada. Speakers of these languages tend to use their own retroflex consonants in place of English alveolar It, d, n/. Although these languages do have nonretroflex stops, these are dental, and it seems that English alveolar stops are perceived as closer to the retroflex stops than to the dental ones.
- ^ Ball & Muller 2014, p. 289b: This use of retroflex consonants is very characteristic of Indian English, and the retroflex resonance is very pervasive ...
- ^ Sailaja 2007, p. 252: 1.4 Indian (Telugu) English: All the adults who participated in this study spoke a Telugu variety of Indian English. Telugu pronunciation of English is heavily influenced by the spelling. Two identical letters in a word are articulated as geminates. The articulation is also mostly rhotic ... In place of the alveolar stops, retroflex sounds are used. Some speakers would also use a retroflex nasal in place of the alveolar nasal, and a retroflex lateral in place of the alveolar lateral.
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Indian English has different words for high numbers than British or America English.[...]Note that above a thousand, Indians introduce a comma after every two digits,[...]
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- On the future of Indian English, by Gurcharan Das.
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- India Human Development Survey-II 2011–2012
Indian Novels in English: Texts, Contexts and Language Hardcover – 2018 by Jaydeep Sarangi (Author)